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CH. 3 Matter- Properties and Changes

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1 CH. 3 Matter- Properties and Changes

2 Monday Physical and Chemical Change Lab ???

3 Tuesday Explain properties of matter notes

4 TEKS (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to: (A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties; (B) identify extensive and intensive properties;

5 3.1 Properties of Matter Substance - composition is uniform, does not change between samples and is “pure”. Pure substances: 1. Elements – Na, H, He 2. Compounds – NaCl (salt) H2O (water)

6 Elements and Compounds
Element- Pure substance that can not be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means Examples: Copper, Oxygen, Iodine

7 Compounds Compound- a pure substance that is a combination of two or more elements that are combined chemically.

8 3.2 Changes in Matter TEKS (8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The student is expected to: E. Determine mass relationships between reactants and products

9 3.2 Changes in Matter Physical Change- changes which alter a substance without changing the composition. (Does not change the identity of the substance) Ex: ice to water

10 Examples of Physical Changes
Change in Size or Shape such as: Bend, break, cut, grind, crumple, split, or crush Change in State such as: Melting, freezing, vaporization, boiling, condensation, or sublimation

11 Chemical Change- involves one or more substances changing into another substance
(also called a Chemical Reaction) Ex: steel to rust

12 Examples of Chemical Changes
Fermentation, rusting, explode, oxidize, corrode, tarnish, burn, or rot.

13 Chemical Property- the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more substances
Na Cl = NaCl (Salt)

14 Examples of Chemical Properties
Ability to rust Formation of precipitate Reacts with water, oxygen, acids, bases, or other substances Flammability

15 Physical Properties of Matter
Physical property- characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition Qualitative!!

16 Examples of Physical Properties
Density Color Odor Taste Hardness Melting Point Boiling Point

17 Extensive Properties Dependent upon amount of substance present
Mass, Length, Volume It changes if you take away some of the substance.

18 Intensive properties Independent of amount of substance present
Examples: Density, color, odor, boiling point. Intensive properties Don’t change and can be used to identify the substance.

19 The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL and the density of pyrite is 5 g/mL
Miners often got Pyrite (fool’s gold) and real gold mixed up. But Density could be used to correct the error. The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL and the density of pyrite is 5 g/mL Pyrite – fools gold Gold

20 Properties of Copper Physical Properties Chemical Properties
Reddish brown, shiny Forms green copper carbonate compound Malleable, ductile Forms new substances with nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Good conductor Forms a deep blue solution with ammonia. Density = 8.92 g/mL Melting pt = 1085 oC Boiling pt = 2570 oC So changing States of Matter are PHYSICAL properties!!

21 Both are copper

22 Properties of Matter Chemical Properties Physical Properties
Reactions in the presence of Water, Air, Acid, Base What happens when heated Physical Properties Intensive Properties Do NOT depend on the amount ________________ E.G Color, Taste, Melting/Boiling Point, Luster, Hardness Extensive Properties Depends on the amount _______________ Mass, Volume, Length, Shape 22

23 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction
The observation that the product has different properties than the reactant(s). Clues: If something can burn Production of energy, such as light, heat, or sound Formation of a gas Formation of a solid – called a precipitate Change in odor Change in color

24 Wednesday

25 Chemical Reactions The new substances formed in the reaction have different compositions and different properties from the substances present before the reaction occurred.

26 Reactant – starting material in a reaction
Product – ending material in a reaction Reactant(s)  turn into Product(s) Na Cl = NaCl (Salt)

27 C. Conservation of Mass – By carefully measuring the mass before and after many chemical reactions, it was observed that the total mass involved in the reaction stayed the same. Law of Conservation of Mass- states that matter is neither created nor destroyed during a reaction– it is conserved

28 Total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products
Total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products. Massreactants = Massproducts 4. According to the law of conservation of mass, how much zinc was present in the zinc carbonate? A 40 g B 88 g C D 256 g

29 Antoine Lavoisier used an analytical balance to help prove this law.

30 Conservation of Mass problems
Ex: 23 g of Na reacts with 35 g of Cl, what is the mass of the product, sodium chloride? 23 g Na+ 35 g Cl = ______ g NaCl Ex: #2 10 g HgO = 9.26 g Hg + _____ g of O

31 Properties of Matter Chemical Properties Physical Properties Intensive properties Extensive properties

32 MATTER MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE yes no Homogeneous Mixture
Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE yes no Can it be chemically decomposed? Is the composition uniform? Colloids Suspensions Solutions

33 Thursday States of matter and card sorting activity

34 Friday 10 bottle demo

35 Monday Mixtures

36 3.3 Mixtures of Matter TEKS
2.(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology 4. (D) Classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.

37 3.3 Mixtures of Matter Mixture- combination of two or more pure substances in which each retains its individual chemical properties.

38 Examples of Mixtures Sand and water Salt and Water
If the substances do not react and can be separated by physical means, it is a mixture.

39 Types of Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixture- does not blend smoothly and individual substances remain distinct. (can see the different parts) Ex: salad, pizza

40 Homogeneous Mixture- constant composition throughout (looks the same throughout)
Also known as solutions Ex: Koolaid, air, sea water, sodas, vinegar, steel

41 Colloid A heterogeneous mixture with particles larger than those in a solution Example : milk

42 Suspension A heterogeneous mixture whose particles settle out over time and can be separated from the mixture by filtration Example lead paint

43 Types of Solution Systems
EXAMPLE Gas-Gas Air is primarily an example of nitrogen, oxygen and argon gases. Gas- Liquid Carbonated beverages contain carbon dioxide gas in solution. Liquid- Gas Moist air contains water droplets in air. Liquid- Liquid Vinegar contains acetic acid in water. Solid- Liquid Sweetened powder drink contains sugar and other solid ingredients in water. Solid- Solid Steel is an alloy of iron containing carbon.

44 Separating Mixtures Because mixtures are physically combined,
the processes are used to separate them are based on the difference in physical properties of the substances. 4 methods for separation

45 Filtration Uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid

46 Distillation Based on differences in boiling points of the substances
Heat mixture until substance with lowest boiling point boils to a vapor which is then condensed into a liquid

47 Crystallization Results in formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance

48 Chromatography Separates the components of a mixture (called the mobile phase) on the basis of the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material (called the stationary phase)

49 3.4 Elements and Compounds
TEKS 4. (D) Classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.

50 3.4 Elements and Compounds
Element- Pure substance that can not be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means Examples: Copper, Oxygen, Iodine

51 Each element has a unique chemical name and symbol.
The first letter is always capitalized, the rest are lowercase. Ex: Oxygen O Carbon C Iron Fe

52 Periodic Table In 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev devised a chart which organized all of the known elements into rows and columns based on their similarities and masses.

53 Rows are called periods Columns are called groups or families

54 Can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means (ex: using heat or energy)

55 Compounds Compound- a pure substance that is a combination of two or more elements that are combined chemically.

56 Common Compounds There are 10 MILLION known compounds!
Ex: Water, Sodium chloride (salt), sucrose (sugar), aspirin, etc. Chemical compounds are represented by formulas. Ex: Water is H2O Sodium chloride is NaCl Sucrose is C12H22O11

57 Properties of a compound are different than the elements that make it up.

58 Monday States of Matter
Oobleck

59 Ex: Hydrogen and Oxygen are tasteless, odorless gases
Ex: Hydrogen and Oxygen are tasteless, odorless gases. They make water which is a clear liquid Hydrogen + Oxygen  Water

60 Ex: Chlorine is a poisonous green gas. Sodium is an explosive metal
Ex: Chlorine is a poisonous green gas. Sodium is an explosive metal. They make sodium chloride which is a white crystal that tastes salty. Stop pg 74

61 States of matter- physical forms of all matter on Earth.

62 States of Matter Solid- definite shape and volume.
Particles vibrate in place. Particles are tightly packed. This make a solid incompressible – can’t be pressed into a smaller volume.

63 Liquid- form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container.

64 Liquids Particles can move past each other
Particles are close together. virtually incompressible

65 Gas- form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the entire volume of its container.

66 Gases Particles of gases move freely. Particles are very far apart. Easily compressed. Is normally in the gaseous state at room temperature.

67 Movement of particles Microscopic view of a gas.
                                Movement of particles Microscopic view of a gas. Microscopic view of a liquid. Microscopic view of a solid.

68 Characteristics of Gases, Liquids and Solids and the Microscopic Explanation for their Behavior
flows easily particles can move past one another flows easily particles can move/slide past one another does not flow easily rigid - locked into place particles cannot move/slide past one another compressible lots of free space between particles not easily compressible little free space between particles assumes the shape and volume of its container assumes the shape of its container, but volume is constant retains a fixed volume and shape

69 Vapor – refers to the gaseous state of a substance that is usually a solid or liquid at room temperature.

70 Plasma Plasma - the fourth state of matter and the most common one.
Found in Stars, and occurs naturally on the Earth in lightning bolts. Plasma


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