4 TEKS(4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties.The student is expected to:(A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties;(B) identify extensive and intensive properties;
5 3.1 Properties of MatterSubstance - composition is uniform, does not change between samples and is “pure”.Pure substances:1. Elements – Na, H, He2. Compounds – NaCl (salt)H2O (water)
6 Elements and Compounds Element- Pure substance that can not be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical meansExamples: Copper, Oxygen, Iodine
7 CompoundsCompound- a pure substance that is a combination of two or more elements that are combined chemically.
8 3.2 Changes in Matter TEKS(8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The student is expected to:E. Determine mass relationships between reactants and products
9 3.2 Changes in MatterPhysical Change- changes which alter a substance without changing the composition.(Does not change the identity of the substance)Ex: ice to water
10 Examples of Physical Changes Change in Size or Shape such as:Bend, break, cut, grind, crumple, split, or crushChange in State such as:Melting, freezing, vaporization, boiling, condensation, or sublimation
11 Chemical Change- involves one or more substances changing into another substance (also called a Chemical Reaction)Ex: steel to rust
12 Examples of Chemical Changes Fermentation,rusting,explode,oxidize,corrode,tarnish,burn,or rot.
13 Chemical Property- the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more substances Na Cl = NaCl (Salt)
14 Examples of Chemical Properties Ability to rustFormation of precipitateReacts with water, oxygen, acids, bases, or other substancesFlammability
15 Physical Properties of Matter Physical property- characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s compositionQualitative!!
16 Examples of Physical Properties DensityColorOdorTasteHardnessMelting PointBoiling Point
17 Extensive Properties Dependent upon amount of substance present Mass, Length, VolumeIt changes if you take away some of the substance.
18 Intensive properties Independent of amount of substance present Examples: Density, color, odor, boiling point.Intensive properties Don’t change and can be used to identify the substance.
19 The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL and the density of pyrite is 5 g/mL Miners often got Pyrite (fool’s gold) and real gold mixed up. But Density could be used to correct the error.The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL and the density of pyrite is 5 g/mLPyrite – fools goldGold
20 Properties of Copper Physical Properties Chemical Properties Reddish brown, shinyForms green copper carbonate compoundMalleable, ductileForms new substances with nitric acid and sulfuric acid.Good conductorForms a deep blue solution with ammonia.Density = 8.92 g/mLMelting pt = 1085 oCBoiling pt = 2570 oCSo changing States of Matter are PHYSICAL properties!!
22 Properties of Matter Chemical Properties Physical Properties Reactions in the presence of Water, Air, Acid, BaseWhat happens when heatedPhysical PropertiesIntensive PropertiesDo NOT depend on the amount________________E.G Color, Taste, Melting/Boiling Point, Luster, HardnessExtensive Properties Depends on the amount_______________Mass, Volume, Length, Shape22
23 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction The observation that the product has different properties than the reactant(s).Clues:If something can burnProduction of energy, such as light, heat, or soundFormation of a gasFormation of a solid – called a precipitateChange in odorChange in color
25 Chemical ReactionsThe new substances formed in the reaction have different compositions and different properties from the substances present before the reaction occurred.
26 Reactant – starting material in a reaction Product – ending material in a reactionReactant(s) turn into Product(s)Na Cl = NaCl (Salt)
27 C. Conservation of Mass – By carefully measuring the mass before and after many chemical reactions, it was observed that the total mass involved in the reaction stayed the same.Law of Conservation of Mass- states that matter is neither created nor destroyed during a reaction– it is conserved
28 Total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products Total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products. Massreactants = Massproducts4. According to the law of conservation of mass, how much zinc was present in the zinc carbonate?A 40 g B 88 gC D 256 g
29 Antoine Lavoisier used an analytical balance to help prove this law.
30 Conservation of Mass problems Ex: 23 g of Na reacts with 35 g of Cl, what is the mass of the product, sodium chloride?23 g Na+ 35 g Cl = ______ g NaClEx: #210 g HgO = 9.26 g Hg + _____ g of O
31 Properties of MatterChemical PropertiesPhysical PropertiesIntensive propertiesExtensive properties
32 MATTER MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE yes no Homogeneous Mixture Can it be physically separated?Homogeneous MixtureHeterogeneous MixtureCompoundElementMIXTUREPURE SUBSTANCEyesnoCan it be chemically decomposed?Is the composition uniform?ColloidsSuspensionsSolutions
33 ThursdayStates of matter and card sorting activity
36 3.3 Mixtures of Matter TEKS 2.(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology4. (D) Classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.
37 3.3 Mixtures of MatterMixture- combination of two or more pure substances in which each retains its individual chemical properties.
38 Examples of Mixtures Sand and water Salt and Water If the substances do not react and can be separated by physical means, it is a mixture.
39 Types of MixturesHeterogeneous Mixture- does not blend smoothly and individual substances remain distinct. (can see the different parts)Ex: salad, pizza
40 Homogeneous Mixture- constant composition throughout (looks the same throughout) Also known as solutionsEx: Koolaid, air, sea water, sodas, vinegar, steel
41 ColloidA heterogeneous mixture with particles larger than those in a solutionExample : milk
42 SuspensionA heterogeneous mixture whose particles settle out over time and can be separated from the mixture by filtrationExample lead paint
43 Types of Solution Systems EXAMPLEGas-GasAir is primarily an example of nitrogen, oxygen and argon gases.Gas- LiquidCarbonated beverages contain carbon dioxide gas in solution.Liquid- GasMoist air contains water droplets in air.Liquid- LiquidVinegar contains acetic acid in water.Solid- LiquidSweetened powder drink contains sugar and other solid ingredients in water.Solid- SolidSteel is an alloy of iron containing carbon.
44 Separating Mixtures Because mixtures are physically combined, the processes areused to separate them arebased on the difference in physical properties of the substances.4 methods for separation
45 FiltrationUses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid
46 Distillation Based on differences in boiling points of the substances Heat mixture until substance with lowest boiling point boils to a vapor which is then condensed into a liquid
47 CrystallizationResults in formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance
48 ChromatographySeparates the components of a mixture (called the mobile phase) on the basis of the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material (called the stationary phase)
49 3.4 Elements and Compounds TEKS4. (D) Classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.
50 3.4 Elements and Compounds Element- Pure substance that can not be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical meansExamples: Copper, Oxygen, Iodine
51 Each element has a unique chemical name and symbol. The first letter is always capitalized, the rest are lowercase.Ex:Oxygen OCarbon CIron Fe
52 Periodic TableIn 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev devised a chart which organized all of the known elements into rows and columns based on their similarities and masses.
53 Rows are called periods Columns are called groups or families
54 Can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means (ex: using heat or energy)
55 CompoundsCompound- a pure substance that is a combination of two or more elements that are combined chemically.
56 Common Compounds There are 10 MILLION known compounds! Ex: Water, Sodium chloride (salt), sucrose (sugar), aspirin, etc.Chemical compounds are represented by formulas.Ex: Water is H2OSodium chloride is NaClSucrose is C12H22O11
57 Properties of a compound are different than the elements that make it up.
59 Ex: Hydrogen and Oxygen are tasteless, odorless gases Ex: Hydrogen and Oxygen are tasteless, odorless gases. They make water which is a clear liquidHydrogen + Oxygen Water
60 Ex: Chlorine is a poisonous green gas. Sodium is an explosive metal Ex: Chlorine is a poisonous green gas. Sodium is an explosive metal. They make sodium chloride which is a white crystal that tastes salty.Stop pg 74
61 States of matter- physical forms of all matter on Earth.
62 States of Matter Solid- definite shape and volume. Particles vibrate in place.Particles are tightly packed.This make a solid incompressible – can’t be pressed into a smaller volume.
63 Liquid- form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container.
64 Liquids Particles can move past each other Particles are close together.virtually incompressible
65 Gas- form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the entire volume of its container.
66 GasesParticles of gases move freely.Particles are very far apart.Easily compressed.Is normally in the gaseous state at room temperature.
67 Movement of particles Microscopic view of a gas. Movement of particlesMicroscopic view of a gas.Microscopic view of a liquid.Microscopic view of a solid.
68 Characteristics of Gases, Liquids and Solids and the Microscopic Explanation for their Behavior flows easily particles can move past one anotherflows easily particles can move/slide past one anotherdoes not flow easily rigid - locked into placeparticles cannot move/slide past one anothercompressible lots of free space between particlesnot easily compressible little free space between particlesassumes the shape and volume of its containerassumes the shape of its container, but volume is constantretains a fixed volumeand shape
69 Vapor – refers to the gaseous state of a substance that is usually a solid or liquid at room temperature.
70 Plasma Plasma - the fourth state of matter and the most common one. Found in Stars, and occurs naturally on the Earth in lightning bolts.Plasma