Presentation on theme: "R ESEARCH METHODOLOGY : AN ENTRY TO SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH Megh R. Dangal Kathmandu University."— Presentation transcript:
R ESEARCH METHODOLOGY : AN ENTRY TO SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH Megh R. Dangal Kathmandu University
INTRODUCTION Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena (Kerlinger, 1986) Research is a procedure by which we attempt to find systematically, and with the support of demonstrable facts, the answer to a question of the resolution of a problem (Leedy, 1989) Research is a systematic and objective analysis and recording of observations that may lead to the development of a theory (Best, 1992)
INTRODUCTION Research is a systematic and critical enquiry which aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge and wisdom (Bassey, 1999) Research is an organized, systematic, data-based and critical, scientific enquiry of investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the objective of finding answers or solutions to it (Sekaran, 2000) (Pant, 2009, p. 5)
What do these definitions have in common? What is research? “planned enquiry that utilizes suitable scientific tools to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable and acceptable by people”
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research process involves a series of well-thought-out activities of gathering, recording, analyzing and interpreting the data The purpose of finding answers to the problem The entire processes based on the philosophies, principles and mechanisms of research by which we attempt to solve problems or search the answers to questions are collectively known as the research methodology
R ESEARCH METHODOLOGY The broader principles of research underscored by philosophical rationales Positivism Studies the world and people in it as objective things by direct observation according to strict rules “Is about the scientific rules that researchers follow” Post-positivism Views knowledge as subjective, value laden and not based on cause-and-effect “Is what researchers do” Research methodology means that: “complexity within activity arenas, minimizes difficulties by using simpler scientific tools”
R ESEARCH METHODS Involve the forms of data collection, analysis and interpretation that researchers propose for their studies Key principles of research design, such as the case study method Particular approaches for collecting and analyzing data, such as observation
A PPLIED RESEARCH AND FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH Applied research Is conducted in response to a specific problem, which requires a solution Fundamental research Is undertaken to improve our understanding of certain problems that commonly occur in organizational setting, and how to solve them
F UNDAMENTAL RESEARCH VS. APPLIED RESEARCH Fundamental researchApplied research Purpose Expand knowledge processes of business and management Result in universal principles relating to the process and its relationship to outcomes Finding of significance and value to society in general Context: Undertaken by people based in universities Choice of topic and objectives determined by the researcher Flexible time scales Purpose: Improve understanding of particular business or management problem Results in solution to problem New knowledge limited to problem Finding of practical relevance and value to managers in organization Context: Undertaken by people based in a variety of settings including organizations Objectives negotiated with originator Tight time scales
N ATURE AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH Exploration Description Explanation Generalization and prediction
S IMPLE RESEARCH MODEL 1. Problem 2. Data Collection 3. Data Analysis 4. Action
Q UALITATIVE RESEARCH Usually emphasizes words rather than quantification in the collection and analysis of data For exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem The process of research involves emerging questions and procedures; collecting data in the participants’ setting; analyzing the data inductively, building from particulars to general themes; and making interpretations of the meaning of the data The final written report has a flexible writing structure
Q UANTITATIVE RESEARCH Usually emphases quantification in the collection and analysis of data For testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables Variables can be measured, typically on instruments, so that numbered data can be analyzed using statistical procedures The final written report has a set structure consisting of introduction, literature and theory, methods, results, and discussion
M IXED RESEARCH Describes research that combines the use of both qualitative and quantitative research Involves philosophical assumptions, the use of both approaches, and the mixing of both in a study Both data are actually merged, one end of the continuum, or kept separate, the other end of the continuum, or combined in some way on the continuum The convergent parallel design: compare or relate The explanatory sequential design: follow up The exploratory sequential design: build to The embedded design: before, during, after
Quantitative Approach Mixed Approach Qualitative Approach Scientific Method Deductive or “top-down” Test hypothesis and theory with data. Deductive and Inductive Inductive or “bottom-up” Generate new hypotheses and theory from data collected. Most common research objectives Description Explanation Prediction Multiple objectives Description Exploration Discovery Focus Narrow-angle lens Testing specific hypotheses Multi-lensWide and Deep-angle lenses Examine the breadth and depth of phenomenon to learn more about them.
Nature of study Study behavior under artificial, controlled conditions. Study behavior in more than one context or condition Study behavior in its natural environment or context. Form of data collected Collect numeric data using structured and validated instruments (closed-ended survey items, rating scales, measurable behavioral responses) Multiple formsCollect narrative data using semi- or unstructured instruments (open-ended survey items, interviews, observation, focus groups, documents) Nature of data Numeric variables.Mixture of numeric variables, words, and images. Words, images, themes, and categories Data analysis Identify statistical relationships. Statistical and holistic Holistically identify patterns, categories, and themes.
Results Generalizable findings. General understanding of respondent’s viewpoint. Researcher framed results. corroborated findings that may be generalizable. Particularistic findings. In-depth understanding of respondent’s viewpoint. Respondent framed results. Form of final report Statistical report including correlations, comparisons of means, and statistically significant findings. Statistical findings with in-depth narrative description and identification of overall themes. Narrative report including contextual description, categories, themes, and supporting respondent quotes. (Johnson & Christensen, 2004)
Textbooks Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods (3 rd ed.). India: Oxford. Creswell, J. W. (2011). Research designs (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Sage. References: American Psychological Association [APA]. (2010). Publication manual (6th ed.). Washington, D. C.: Author. Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (6 th ed.). India: PEARSON. Pant, P. R. (2010). Social science research and thesis writing (5th ed.). Kathmandu: Buddha.