2 Acquiring Knowledge Ways of Knowing TenacityIntuitionAuthorityRationalismEmpiricismScience
3 TenacityA willingness to accept ideas as valid because they have been accepted for so long or repeated so often that they seem true
4 IntuitionAccepting ideas as valid because the “feel” intuitively true
5 AuthorityAccepting ideas as valid because some respected authority asserts that ideas are true
6 RationalismDeveloping valid ideas using existing ideas and principles of logic
7 EmpiricismGaining knowledge through observation; knowing by experiencing through our senses.Pure reason is not enough.Naïve versus Sophisticated
8 ScienceA process that combines the principles of rationalism with the process of empiricism, using rationalism to develop theories and empiricism to test the theories.
9 Assumptions & ScienceAssumptions are: ideas that are tentatively accepted as being true without further examination.In science, we make a few assumptions, preferring to subject our ideas to the rigorous demands of rational and empirical challenges.
10 Basic Assumptions of Science #1. A true, physical universe exists.
11 Basic Assumptions of Science #2. While there may be randomness and thus unpredictability in the universe, it is primarily an orderly system.
12 Basic Assumptions of Science #3. The principles of this orderly universe can be discovered, particularly through scientific research.
13 Basic Assumptions of Science #4. Our knowledge of the universe is always incomplete. New knowledge can, and should, alter current ideas and theories. Therefore, all knowledge and theories are tentative.
15 Phases of a Research Study 1. Idea generating phase2. Problem-definition phase3. Procedures-define phase4. Observation phase5. Data-analysis phase6. Interpretation phase7. Communication phase
16 Idea generating phaseIdentify a topic of interest to study.
17 Problem-definition phase Refine the vague and general idea(s) generated in the Idea Generating Phase step into a precise question to be studied.Search the literature – “Lit Review”
18 Procedures-define phase Decide on the specific procedures to be used in the data gathering and statistical analysis of the data.
19 Observation phaseUsing the defined procedures to collect observations.
20 Data-analysis phaseAnalyze the data collected using the appropriate statistical procedures.
21 Interpretation phaseCompare your results with the results predicted on the basis of your theory. Do your results support the theory?
22 Communication phasePrepare a written or oral report of your study for publication or presentation to colleagues. Your report should include a description of all of the preceding steps.
23 Levels of Constraint “Types” of Scientific Research Naturalistic observationCase studyCorrelational researchDifferential researchExperimental research
24 Naturalistic observation The observation of participants in their natural environment.The researcher should do nothing to limit or change the environment or the behavior of the participants.
25 Case studyInvolves moving the participant into a moderately limiting environment, intervening to a slight degree, and observing the participant’s responses.
26 Correlational research The focus is on quantifying the degree of relationship between two variables.The measurement procedures must be carefully defined and precisely followed.Causation?
27 Differential research Two or more preexisting groups of participants are compared. The setting is usually highly constrained, and the measurement procedures must be carefully defined and precisely followed.
28 Experimental research Similar to differential research except that the participants are assigned without bias to the various groups or conditions in the study.