2 Transformations History: Vlad III Dracula 1431-1476 Literature: Bram Stoker’s DraculaTheatre: Dracula & 1927Film: Nosferatu–Shadow of the Vampire modern day
3 History: Vlad III Dracula 1431-1476 Born: 1431 in Sighisoara, TransylvaniaDracula: “Son of the Dragon/Devil”Second child of Vlad II Dracul, voivode of WalachiaWalachia: principality between the Danube and the Transylvanian Alps in southern RomaniaVoivode (prince and military leader) for 3 separate periods: 1448, , and 1476To Romanians: Vlad Tepes (Vlad the Impaler)To Turks: Kaziglu Bey (the Impaler Prince)Impalement: preferred method of executionUnified Walachia - resisted Ottoman advancesKilled while fighting Turks near Bucharest in 1476
4 History: Vlad III Dracula 1431-1476 During 2nd reign: murdered between 40,000 and 100,000 people by 1462Mid-15th century: German, Russian, and Turkish pamphlets establish notorietyThe Frightening and Truly Extraordinary Story of a Wicked Blood-drinking Tyrant Called Prince Dracula.Nuremberg, 1488: "He had a large pot made and boards with holes fastened over it and had people's heads shoved through there and imprisoned them in this. And he had the pot filled with water and a big fire made under the pot and thus let the people cry out pitiably until they were boiled quite to death.”An immortal heroic iconNever associated with vampires
5 Literature: Bram Stoker 1847-1912 November 8th, 1847: Abraham “Bram” Stoker born in Clontarf, IrelandAttended Trinity College in Dublin8 years of civil service1872: First story, The Crystal Cup1878: Begins managing Henry Irving at London’s Lyceum Theatre1882: First book, Under the Sunset1890: First novel, The Snake’s Pass1897: Dracula publishedApril 20, 1912: Dies in London
6 Literature: Bram Stoker’s Influences 1890-1896 Researched eastern European vampire folklore (especially Transylvanian myths)An Account of the Principalities of Walachia And Moldavia, An Extraordinary and Shocking History of aGreat Berserker Called Prince Dracula, and The Historie and Superstitions of Romantic RomaniaThe Un-dead and Count Wampyr1890: Met Hungarian professor, Arminius VanberySyphilis in Victorian EnglandNever set foot in Romania
8 Literature: Bram Stoker’s Dracula 1897 Known as an epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. The usual form is letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used.The word epistolary comes from the Latin word epistola, meaning a letter.Authors use this device to add realism to their works.
9 Literature: Bram Stoker’s Dracula 1897 Significant plot changes2nd only to the Bible in salesInspired over 700 filmsNever been out of printTranslated into every major language in the worldDepicts good vs. evil
10 Literature: Bram Stoker’s Dracula 1897 The novel is considered a work of gothic fiction, specifically Victorian gothic.Gothic fiction is a type of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance.Although gothic fiction was no longer a dominant literary genre during the Victorian era, most would say that the genre was entering its most creative period.Some examples of Victorian gothic writers:Edgar Allan PoeCharlotte and Emily Brontë (Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights)Mary Shelley (Frankenstein)
11 Gothic Literature: Bram Stoker’s Dracula Gothic Elements Include:A deserted (or sparsely inhabited) castle or mansion in a state of ruinsLabyrinths/mazes, dark corridors, and winding stairs filled with dusty cobwebsHidden tunnels/staircases, dungeons, underground passages, cryptsLimited lighting such as moonlight (usually a full moon), candles, flashlight, lanternThe setting is usually threatening natural landscapes, like rugged mountains, dark forests, or eerie moors, exhibiting stormy weatherDark secrets surrounding some tormented soul who is left in isolationOminous omens and cursesMagic, supernatural manifestations, or the suggestion of the supernaturalA damsel in distressThe damsel’s rescuer; usually a loverHorrifying (or terrifying) events or the threat of such happenings
12 Tone in Bram Stoker’s Dracula The novel displays an overall dark tone. Theimpact of Dracula’s actions create a bleakoutlook on the future. This tone allows thetriumph of the protagonists to be enhanced.The characters, who are respectable andoverall good people, face this evil head onand triumph. The tone helps to set the oddsagainst their success but they overcome it.
13 Imagery in Bram Stoker’s Dracula Imagery is heavily used in an effort to enhance the tone.The setting of Dracula’s castle and its appearance is described in detail. Stoker uses horror so that the reader will remain interested in the plot. He utilizes imagery when describing how Dracula would suck the blood out of his victim and how he attempted to change Mina Harker into a vampire.
14 Voice in Bram Stoker’s Dracula Stoker utilizes a more personal voice. Rather than Stoker offering his own voice in the novel, the voice comes directly from the characters due to his writing style. The novel is composed of journal entries, letters, and newspaper clippings written by the protagonists. Through this, they offer their own opinions on the situation which may vary from highly optimistic to having a negative outlook on the probable outcome of the situation.There isn’t one specific voice and this allows the reader to have a better understanding of what is taking place.The novel is written so that the actions and thoughts of the protagonists are known in detail by the reader.
15 Importance of Irony in Bram Stoker’s Dracula Irony is not very important to the overallplot in Dracula. Everything is describedand actually is as it seems.The protagonists are good in everyaspect and the vampires are evil inevery aspect.This novel is basically the battle betweengood and evil with good prevailing.
16 Literature: the Count or the Voivode 1897 2 major differencesCount: Castle in Transylvanian AlpsVoivode: Castle in Walachia's foothillsCount: of Szekely blood, from the "northern country"Voivode: of an older Walachian stock2 Major SimilaritiesCount Dracula describes his royal heritage: "Is it a wonder that we were a conquering race; that we were proud; that when the Magyar, the Lombard, the Avar, the Bulgar, or the Turk poured his thousands on our frontiers, we drove them back? [...] To us, for centuries, was trusted the guarding of the frontier of Turkeyland; aye, and more than that, endless duty of the frontier guard.“Count Dracula alludes to an "ancestor" who "sold his people to the Turk and brought the shame of slavery on them!" Vlad III Dracula’s younger brother, Radu, surrendered Walachia to the Ottomans.
17 Literature: the Count or the Voivode 1897 Vlad TepesHe was not very tall, but very stocky and strong, with a cold and terrible appearance, a strong and aquiline nose, swollen nostrils, a thin reddish face in which very long eyelashes framed large wide-open green eyes; the bushy black eyebrows made them appear threatening. His face and chin were shaven, but for a moustache. The swollen temples increased the bulk of his head. A bull's neck connected [with] his head to his body from which black curly locks hung on his wide-shouldered person.--Niccolò ModrussaCount DraculaHis face was strong -- a very strong -- aquiline, with high bridge of the thin nose and peculiarly arched nostrils; with lofty domed forehead, and hair growing scantily round the temple, but profusely elsewhere. His eyebrows were very massive, almost meeting over the nose, and with bushy hair that seemed to curl in its own profusion. The mouth, so far as I could see it under the heavy moustache, was fixed and rather cruel looking, with peculiarly sharp white teeth; these protruded over the lips, whose remarkable ruddiness showed astonishing vitality in a man of his years.--Bram Stoker
18 Theatre: Dracula & 19271924: Dracula, by Hamilton Deane, premiered in Derby, England – popular 3 year tour3 acts set mostly in a drawing room in LondonCount: Raymond Huntley (2000+ performances)Count: from cadaverous to charmingAmerican entrepreneur, Horace Liveright, bought rights to the Deane productionJohn Balderston: young journalist/playwright assigned by Liveright to 'Americanize' Deane’s scriptToned down theatrical dialogue – structure remainedHuntley turned down role – Bela Lugosi hired (speech)1927: Dracula opens in Fulton Theatre in New York City Runs for 33 weeks, earning over $2 million
19 Film: NosferatuNosferatu, Eine Symphonie des Grayens (The Undead, a Symphony of Horror)Directed by F.W. Murnau ( )German Expressionist cinema; silentEarliest surviving vampire filmMax Schreck as Count Orlok – isolated, pathetic, and withdrawnMurnau drew on popular Vampire lore and Stoker's novel (without permission)Changed names and settingFlorence Stoker and the British Incorporated Society of Authors destroyed the original negatives and most of the printsWordy - journal entries, letters, etc.Straightforward, unromantic, gruesome, cynicalMax Schreck myth
20 Film: Dracula & Horror of Dracula 1931 & 1958 Dracula (1931): D. Tod BrowningDracula: Bela Lugosi (speech)Script draws heavily on stage playDracula a suave, continental lover - handsome and charismaticVictorian-era English aristocratOmits explicit sexualityHorror of Dracula (1958): D. Terence FisherDracula: Christopher LeeSignificant changes to novel
21 Film: Dracula 1992 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GG-TwX5A49g Directed by Francis Ford CoppolaDracula was played by Gary OldmanDracula returns to England to try to find his lost loveClosest to the novel (characters and journal entries)Supernatural Romance
22 Film: Other Interpretations 1979-2000 1979: Nosferatu, Phantom der Nacht(The Undead, Phantom of the Night) D. Werner Herzog, Count: Klaus KinskiSet in Netherlands, not EnglandFirst film to portray Dracula as tragic figureDracula as “the plague" personified withno romantic power over mortals1995: Dracula, Dead and Loving It D. Mel Brooks, Count: Leslie NielsenUnpopular parody2000: Wes Craven Presents: Dracula D. Patrick Lussier, Count: Gerard ButlerSet in America, modern day2000: Shadow of the VampireD. E. Elias Merhige, Count: Willem DafoeThe making of Murnau’s NosferatuBest Dracula Quotes (clips)