6 Old RegimeThe social and political system in use in France in the 1770sHas been in place since the Middle AgesIn the 1700s, France was the leading country of Europe. It was the center of the new ideas of the Enlightenment. However, beneath the surface there were major problems. Soon the nation would be torn by a violent revolution.One problem was that people were not treated equally in French society. A political and social sys- tem called the Old Regime remained in place.
7 Estates First and Second Make up only 2 percent of the population The French were divided into three classes, or estates. The First Estate consisted of the Roman Catholic clergy. The Second Estate was made up of nobles. Only about 2 percent of the people belonged to these two estates. Yet they owned 20 percent of the land. They had easy lives.
8 Third Estate Third Make up 98 percent of the population Bourgeoisie Group that most strongly embraced the ideals and principles of the enlightenmentEverybody else belonged to the Third Estate. This huge group included three types of people:• the bourgeoisie—mostly well-off merchants and skilled workers who lacked the status of nobles• city workers—cooks, servants, and others who were poorly paid and often out of work• peasants—farm workers, making up more than 80 percent of the French peopleMembers of the Third Estate were angry. They had few rights. They paid up to half of their income in taxes, while the rich paid almost none.
10 Tax System Third Estate Paid almost all of the taxes Three factors led to revolution. First, the Enlightenment spread the idea that everyone should be equal. The powerless people in the Third Estate liked that. Second, the French econ- omy was failing. High taxes kept profits low, and food supplies were short. The government owed money. Third, King Louis XVI was a weak leader. His wife, Marie Antoinette, was unpopular. She was from Austria, France’s long-time enemy, and was noted for her extravagant spending.
11 King Louis XVICalled the Estates General to meet for the first time in 175 yearsWhy?Proposed taxation of the Second EstateMain issue at meetingHow many votes each state would getIn the 1780s, France was deep in debt. Louis tried to tax the nobles. Instead, they forced the king to call a meeting of the Estates-General, an assembly of delegates of the three estates.The meeting of the Estates-General began in May 1789 with arguments over how to count votes. In the past, each estate had cast one vote. The Third Estate now wanted each delegate to have a vote. The king and the other estates did not agree to the plan because the Third Estate was larger and would have more votes.
12 Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes Spokesman for the Third Estate (Not a member)Recommended that it’s delegates should name themselves the National AssemblySuggested that they pass laws and make reforms in the name of the French people
13 Tennis Court OathA pledge by the Third Estate to continue meeting (after they were forced to find a new meeting place) until they had drawn up a new constitution.The Third Estate then broke with the others and met separately. In June 1789, its delegates voted to rename themselves the National Assembly. They claimed to represent all the peo- ple. This was the beginning of representative gov- ernment for FranceAt one point, the members of the Third Estate found themselves locked out of their meeting. They broke down a door leading to a tennis court. Then they promised to stay there until they made a new constitution. This promise was called the Tennis Court Oath.
14 Bastile DayJuly 14, 1789A mob stormed the prison looking for gunpowderLouis tried to make peace. He ordered the clergy and nobles to join the National Assembly. However, trouble erupted. Rumors flew that foreign soldiers were going to attack French citizens. On July 14, an angry crowd captured the Bastille, a Paris prison. The mob wanted to get gunpowder for their weapons in order to defend the city.
15 Louis XVI Called up mercenary troops Caused the widespread emotional reaction called the Great FearA wave of violence called the Great Fear swept the country. Peasants broke into and burned nobles’ houses. They tore up documents that had forced them to pay fees to the nobles. Late in 1789, a mob of women marched from Paris to the king’s palace at Versailles. They were angry about high bread prices and demanded that the king come to Paris. They hoped he would end hunger in the city. The king and queen left Versailles, never to return.
16 What events signified the end of the absolute monarchy and the beginning of representative government
45 Congress of ViennaPrince Klemens von MetternichHoly Alliance
46 Congress of Vienna Main goal of participants Establish security and stability for the nations of EuropeIn 1814, leaders of many nations met to draw up apeace plan for Europe. This series of meetings wascalled the Congress of Vienna. The most importantperson at the Congress of Vienna was the foreignminister of Austria, Klemens vonMetternich. He shaped the peace conditions thatwere finally accepted.
47 Prince Klemens von Metternich Foreign minister of AustriaMost influential leader at the Congress of Vienna
48 What did Metternich want to accomplish at the Congess of Vienna? # 53He did not want to create the beginnings of a European democracy (Write this down)Metternich had three goals at the congress.First, he wanted to make sure that the Frenchwould not attack another country again. Second, hewanted a balance of power in which no onenation was strong enough to threaten othernations. Third, he wanted legitimacy. This meantrestoring monarchs to the thrones they had beforeNapoleon’s conquests. The other leaders agreedwith Metternich’s ideas.
49 Congress of Vienna Accomplishments Reinstating the royal families dethroned by NapoleonCreating a balance of power among European nationsSurrounding France with strong neighboring countriesMetternich achieved his first goal when thecongress strengthened the small nations thatsurrounded France. Meanwhile, France was notpunished too severely. It remained independentand kept some overseas possessions. This helpedachieve Metternich’s second goal to create abalance of power.The congress also worked to fulfill Metternich’sthird goal. Many rulers were returned to power instates throughout Europe, including France.The Congress of Vienna created very successfulpeace agreements. None of the great powersfought against one another 40 years. Some did notfight in a war for the rest of the century.
50 Holy Alliance Russia Austria Prussia Many European rulers were nervous about theeffects of the French Revolution. In 1815, CzarAlexander, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and KingFrederick William III of Prussia formed the HolyAlliance. Other alliances created by Metternichwere called the Concert of Europe. The idea ofthese alliances was for nations to help one anotherif revolution came.Across Europe, conservatives held control ofEuropean governments. Conservatives werepeople who opposed the ideals of the FrenchRevolution. They also usually supported the rightsand powers of royalty. They did not encourage individualliberties. They did not want any calls forequal rights.
51 Congress of viennaHelped generate independence movements in South AmericaBut many other people still believed in theideals of the French Revolution. They thought thatall people should be equal and share in power.Later they would again fight for these rights.People in the Americas also felt the desire forfreedom. Spanish colonies in the Americas revoltedagainst the restored Spanish king. Manycolonies won independence from Spain. Nationalfeeling grew in Europe, too. Soon people in areassuch as Italy, Germany, and Greece would rebeland form new nations. The French Revolution hadchanged the politics of Europe and beyond.
52 Accomplishments Detriments What did the congress of Vienna accomplish that had a real and lasting value for the welfare of Europe, and which of its accomplishments were harmful to Europe's future?AccomplishmentsDetriments