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The French revolution and napoleon

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1 The French revolution and napoleon
Chapter 23

2 The french revolution begins
Section 1

3 Old Regime Estates Third Estate Tax System King Louis XVI Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes Tennis Court Oath Bastile Day

4 Louis XVI

5 Causes of the French Revolution

6 Old Regime The social and political system in use in France in the 1770s Has been in place since the Middle Ages In the 1700s, France was the leading country of Europe. It was the center of the new ideas of the Enlightenment. However, beneath the surface there were major problems. Soon the nation would be torn by a violent revolution. One problem was that people were not treated equally in French society. A political and social sys- tem called the Old Regime remained in place.

7 Estates First and Second Make up only 2 percent of the population
The French were divided into three classes, or estates. The First Estate consisted of the Roman Catholic clergy. The Second Estate was made up of nobles. Only about 2 percent of the people belonged to these two estates. Yet they owned 20 percent of the land. They had easy lives.

8 Third Estate Third Make up 98 percent of the population Bourgeoisie
Group that most strongly embraced the ideals and principles of the enlightenment Everybody else belonged to the Third Estate. This huge group included three types of people: • the bourgeoisie—mostly well-off merchants and skilled workers who lacked the status of nobles • city workers—cooks, servants, and others who were poorly paid and often out of work • peasants—farm workers, making up more than 80 percent of the French people Members of the Third Estate were angry. They had few rights. They paid up to half of their income in taxes, while the rich paid almost none.

9 Why did people of the third estate revolt?

10 Tax System Third Estate Paid almost all of the taxes
Three factors led to revolution. First, the Enlightenment spread the idea that everyone should be equal. The powerless people in the Third Estate liked that. Second, the French econ- omy was failing. High taxes kept profits low, and food supplies were short. The government owed money. Third, King Louis XVI was a weak leader. His wife, Marie Antoinette, was unpopular. She was from Austria, France’s long-time enemy, and was noted for her extravagant spending.

11 King Louis XVI Called the Estates General to meet for the first time in 175 years Why? Proposed taxation of the Second Estate Main issue at meeting How many votes each state would get In the 1780s, France was deep in debt. Louis tried to tax the nobles. Instead, they forced the king to call a meeting of the Estates-General, an assembly of delegates of the three estates. The meeting of the Estates-General began in May 1789 with arguments over how to count votes. In the past, each estate had cast one vote. The Third Estate now wanted each delegate to have a vote. The king and the other estates did not agree to the plan because the Third Estate was larger and would have more votes.

12 Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes
Spokesman for the Third Estate (Not a member) Recommended that it’s delegates should name themselves the National Assembly Suggested that they pass laws and make reforms in the name of the French people

13 Tennis Court Oath A pledge by the Third Estate to continue meeting (after they were forced to find a new meeting place) until they had drawn up a new constitution. The Third Estate then broke with the others and met separately. In June 1789, its delegates voted to rename themselves the National Assembly. They claimed to represent all the peo- ple. This was the beginning of representative gov- ernment for France At one point, the members of the Third Estate found themselves locked out of their meeting. They broke down a door leading to a tennis court. Then they promised to stay there until they made a new constitution. This promise was called the Tennis Court Oath.

14 Bastile Day July 14, 1789 A mob stormed the prison looking for gunpowder Louis tried to make peace. He ordered the clergy and nobles to join the National Assembly. However, trouble erupted. Rumors flew that foreign soldiers were going to attack French citizens. On July 14, an angry crowd captured the Bastille, a Paris prison. The mob wanted to get gunpowder for their weapons in order to defend the city.

15 Louis XVI Called up mercenary troops
Caused the widespread emotional reaction called the Great Fear A wave of violence called the Great Fear swept the country. Peasants broke into and burned nobles’ houses. They tore up documents that had forced them to pay fees to the nobles. Late in 1789, a mob of women marched from Paris to the king’s palace at Versailles. They were angry about high bread prices and demanded that the king come to Paris. They hoped he would end hunger in the city. The king and queen left Versailles, never to return.

16 What events signified the end of the absolute monarchy and the beginning of representative government

17 Revolution brings reform terror
Section 2

18 Declaration of the rights of man
Olympe de Gouges National Assembly Legislative Assembly Factions Émigrés San-culottes Jean-Paul Marat

19 Guillotine Maximilien Robespierre Committee of Public Safety Robespierre National Convention

20 Declaration of the rights of man
Stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights”

21 Olympe de gouges Wrote a strong response to “A Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen” Did not give the same rights to women that it gave to men

22 National Assembly Lost support of many French peasants
Took away the Catholic Church’s lands and independence

23 Legislative Assembly Name of the government body that replaced the National Assembly

24 Factions Right wing Left wing
Describes the most conservative members of the Legislative Assembly Left wing Describes the most radical members of the Legislative Assembly

25 Émigrés Refers to the nobles who fled France but still hoped to restore the monarchy

26 San-culottes Radical group
Named for the style of breeches its members wore

27 Jean-Paul Marat Radical revolutionary
Fatally stabbed by another revolutionary

28 Guillotine Invented to further humane goals
Often used in contradiction to such goals Who was safe during the Reign of Terror? No one

29 Maximilien Robespierre
Claimed it was possible to build a “republic of virtue” Came to be known as the Reign of Terror

30 Committee of Public Safety
Imposed the Reign of Terror

31 Robespierre Forced from power by fellow revolutionaries

32 National Convention Put an end to the Reign of Terror
Out of fear for their own safety

33 Why do you think the reign of terror occurred and went on as long as it did?

34 What might have caused the French people to embrace Napoleon as emperor so soon after fighting a revolution that rid them of a king?

35 Napoleon’s empire collapses
Section 4

36 Continental System Defeats Elba 100 Days

37 Continental System Napoleon’s attempt to make Europe more self-sufficient Britain’s reaction Organized it’s own blockade

38 Describe Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812. Why was it so unwise
Discuss the scorched earth policy

39 What events led to Napoleon’s downfall?

40 Defeats Napoleon Defeated by King Frederick William III of Prussia and Czar Alexander I of Russia Exiled to Elba

41 Elba Napoleon escapes Gathers volunteers and seizes power from King Louis XVIII

42 100 Days Napoleons last bid for power
Ended with his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo

43 What aspect of Napoleon’s character or personality do you think was most responsible for the collapse of his empire? Explain?

44 The Congress of vienna Section 5

45 Congress of Vienna Prince Klemens von Metternich Holy Alliance

46 Congress of Vienna Main goal of participants
Establish security and stability for the nations of Europe In 1814, leaders of many nations met to draw up a peace plan for Europe. This series of meetings was called the Congress of Vienna. The most important person at the Congress of Vienna was the foreign minister of Austria, Klemens von Metternich. He shaped the peace conditions that were finally accepted.

47 Prince Klemens von Metternich
Foreign minister of Austria Most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna

48 What did Metternich want to accomplish at the Congess of Vienna?
# 53 He did not want to create the beginnings of a European democracy (Write this down) Metternich had three goals at the congress. First, he wanted to make sure that the French would not attack another country again. Second, he wanted a balance of power in which no one nation was strong enough to threaten other nations. Third, he wanted legitimacy. This meant restoring monarchs to the thrones they had before Napoleon’s conquests. The other leaders agreed with Metternich’s ideas.

49 Congress of Vienna Accomplishments
Reinstating the royal families dethroned by Napoleon Creating a balance of power among European nations Surrounding France with strong neighboring countries Metternich achieved his first goal when the congress strengthened the small nations that surrounded France. Meanwhile, France was not punished too severely. It remained independent and kept some overseas possessions. This helped achieve Metternich’s second goal to create a balance of power. The congress also worked to fulfill Metternich’s third goal. Many rulers were returned to power in states throughout Europe, including France. The Congress of Vienna created very successful peace agreements. None of the great powers fought against one another 40 years. Some did not fight in a war for the rest of the century.

50 Holy Alliance Russia Austria Prussia
Many European rulers were nervous about the effects of the French Revolution. In 1815, Czar Alexander, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and King Frederick William III of Prussia formed the Holy Alliance. Other alliances created by Metternich were called the Concert of Europe. The idea of these alliances was for nations to help one another if revolution came. Across Europe, conservatives held control of European governments. Conservatives were people who opposed the ideals of the French Revolution. They also usually supported the rights and powers of royalty. They did not encourage individual liberties. They did not want any calls for equal rights.

51 Congress of vienna Helped generate independence movements in South America But many other people still believed in the ideals of the French Revolution. They thought that all people should be equal and share in power. Later they would again fight for these rights. People in the Americas also felt the desire for freedom. Spanish colonies in the Americas revolted against the restored Spanish king. Many colonies won independence from Spain. National feeling grew in Europe, too. Soon people in areas such as Italy, Germany, and Greece would rebel and form new nations. The French Revolution had changed the politics of Europe and beyond.

52 Accomplishments Detriments
What did the congress of Vienna accomplish that had a real and lasting value for the welfare of Europe, and which of its accomplishments were harmful to Europe's future? Accomplishments Detriments

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