2 Imagery Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in media: The use of vivid or figurative language to represent objects, ideas, or actions.Example in Hamlet:“Hyperion to a satyr, so loving to my mother That he might not beteem the winds of heaven Visit her face too roughly. Heaven and earth! (Shakespeare, I, ii, )”Shakespeare uses imagery to emphasize how much Old Hamlet loved Gertrude.Example in media:The media uses imagery to stress the importance of certain actions that have happened. For example, imagery might be used to emphasize the severity of a crime that has happened.
3 Simile Simile: Example in Hamlet: Examples in daily life: A literary devise that compares two items together, often using like or as.Example in Hamlet:“Make thy two eyes, like stars, start from their sphere (Shakespeare, I, iv, 17)”Shakespeare compares Hamlet’s eyes to stars in this simile.Examples in daily life:Similes are commonly used in everyday conversation. Some common simile phrases include “Cool as a cucumber” or “Smart as a whip”
4 Metaphor Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Media: A figure or speech where a word is used to refer to another thing in order to show that they are similar.Example in Hamlet:“The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, or to take arms against a sea of troubles, (Shakespeare III, I, 58-59)”This is an example of a metaphor because Hamlet compares his problems to “slings and arrows” and “a sea of troubles”Example in Media:Metaphors are used in advertising to draw the audience’s attention on their product. For example, Tropicana’s slogan was “Your daily ray of sunshine.” Tropicana compared their orange juice to a ray of sunshine, drawing the audience’s attention to their orange juice.
5 Personification Example in Hamlet: Definition: Examples in the media: A figure of speech in which inanimate objects are given humanlike characteristics.Example in Hamlet:Rosencrantz said “None, my lord, but that the world’s grown honest (Shakespeare II, ii, 233)” Rosencrantz states that the world is honest; this is personification because the world can not possess the human quality of honesty.Examples in the media:Television commercials use personification frequently to try and make their product more appealing. For example, Gatorade used personification in their commercial by making the Gatorade bottles box in a ring.
7 Apostrophe Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in movies: An apostrophe is used to express direct address of an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction.Example in Hamlet:In Hamlet’s soliloquy in Act I he says, “Let me not think on’t: frailty, thy name is women (Shakespeare, I, ii, 146)” This is an example of an apostrophe because Hamlet is speaking directly to frailty, which is a personified abstraction.Example in movies:In the movie cast away, the actor Tom Hanks, while stranded on an island befriends and talks to a volleyball. This is an example of Apostrophe because the volleyball is an inanimate object.
8 Symbol Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Movies: Symbols are objects, characters, or figures that represent abstract concepts.Example in Hamlet:In Act IV, scene v, flowers are used as symbols. For example, Ophelia gives fennel and columbines to Gertrude and rue to Claudius. Fennel and columbines symbolize unfaithfulness in marriage and rue symbolizes repentance and sorrow.Example in Movies:Symbols are used in many movies. For example, in The Wizard of Oz, Emerald City represented Washington D.C and Kansas represented typical America.
9 Allegory Definition: Example in Hamlet: Allegory is a representation of abstract ideas or principles using characters, events, or figures.Example in Hamlet:The ghost is an example of allegory because he represents Hamlet being haunted by the memory of his father.Examples in Movies and Television:One common example of allegory in movies and television is the grim reaper. The grim reaper represents death.
10 Paradox Definition: Example in Hamlet: A paradox made up of two opposite things that appear contradictory, yet might be true.Example in Hamlet:“A little more than kin, and less than kind (Shakespeare I, ii, 36).” This is an example of paradox because Hamlet is saying that Claudius is his uncle and his step father, but Hamlet does not consider him kin or kind.Example in movies or television:Paradoxes are frequently used in movies and television. One of the most common paradoxes used is TV and movies is “bittersweet.” This paradox is used to describe a moment or event that is happy, but also sad.
11 Hyperbole Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Media: A hyperbole is a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration for a certain effect.Example in Hamlet:“O, that this too too solid flesh would melt, thaw and resolve itself into a dew! (Shakespeare I, ii, )” This is a hyperbole because Shakespeare is using an overstatement to describe the severity of how he is feeling about his life.Example in Media:Newscasters sometime have the tendencies to over exaggerate stories that they are reporting to grab the attention of the public. This is an example of hyperbole.
12 Understatement Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Movies: A understatement is making something appear smaller or less important that it actually is.Example in Hamlet:“It is not nor it cannot come to good. But break, my heart; for I must hold my tongue (Shakespeare I, ii, ).” This is an example of an understatement because this line is very mild compared to the rest of his soliloquy.Example in Movies:Understatements can be used in movies and television shows to add comic relief or sarcasm.
13 Irony Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Television and Movies: The use of language that usually means the opposite of what you think, typically for a humorous or emphatic effect.Example in Hamlet:An example of dramatic irony is the audience knows that Hamlet is just acting crazy, but Gertrude, Claudius, Ophelia, and Polonius actually think Hamlet is crazy.Example in Television and Movies:Dramatic irony is used a lot in television and movies. This adds suspense and grabs the audience’s attention when they know something the characters do not.
14 Chiasmus Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Politics: A chiasmus is a technique that repeats terms in a reverse order.Example in Hamlet:“Thanks, Rosencrantz and gentle Guildenstern. Thanks, Guildenstern and gentle Rosencrantz (Shakespeare II, ii, 33-34).” This is an example of chiasmus because the first sentence is repeated in reverse order.Example in Politics:John F. Kennedy made a famous quote in his inaugural address that is an example of a chiasmus. He said, “And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”
15 Metonymy Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Movies and Media: A figure of speech consisting of a word or phrase that is used to stand in for another word.Example in Hamlet:“And by opposing end them? To die, to sleep no more, and by a sleep to say we end (Shakespeare III, I, 60-61)” This is an example of metonymy because Hamlet substitutes sleep for death. These two words represent the same thing in this passage.Example in Movies and Media:Metonymy is used in movies and also daily conversation. Some common examples include substituting “crown” in place of a royal person and “suits” in place for business men.
16 Synecdoche Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Media: A figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something.Example in Hamlet:“A serpent stung me. So the whole ear of Denmark is forgèd process of my death (Shakespeare I, v, 36-37)” The ghost refers to the ear of Denmark, which stands for the country of Denmark.Example in Media:“Capital Hill” refers to both the United States senate and also the House of representatives. This is an example of synecdoche because on a part is used to describe the whole.
17 Repartee Definition: Example in Hamlet: A conversation that is characterized by quick, clever comments or replies.Example in Hamlet:In Act II, Scene ii, Hamlet and Polonius have a conversation that is an example of a repartee because it is characterized by witty comments (Shakespeare II, ii, ).Example in Movies and Television:Repartees are used in television and movies between characters that are arguing. In these repartees clever comebacks are used, as well as witty comments.
18 Stichomythia Definition: Example in Hamlet: An arrangement of dialogue in which single lines of verse or parts of lines are spoken by alternate speakers.Example in Hamlet:In Act III, scene iv, Hamlet and Gertrude exchange dialogue that is an example of stichomythia. In this scene, Hamlet and Gertrude argue about her marriage to Claudius (Shakespeare III, iv, 7-18).Examples in Movies and Television:Stichomythia is used in movies and television when two characters exchange single lines of dialogue when they are usually arguing.
19 Stock Characters Definition: Examples in Hamlet: Stock Characters are characters are based on common stereotypes. Their characteristics rely heavily on these stereotypes.Examples in Hamlet:A stock character in Hamlet is Hamlet as a revenger. This is a common stereotype that is reflected in his actions throughout the novel.Example in Television and Movies:In supernatural movies and television a common stock character is the character with no supernatural powers, or the mortal character. This character fits a certain stereotype and it is evident through their actions.
20 Alliteration Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Media: The repetition of the same sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables.Example in Hamlet:“To all that fortune, death and danger dare – even for an egg-shell (Shakespeare IV, iv, 52-53).” This is an example of alliteration because there is a repetition of “d” and “e” sounds at the beginning of some words.Example in Media:Alliteration can be found in company names, as well fictional character’s names in movies and television. For example, Bed, Bath, and Beyond uses alliteration in it’s company name and Daffy Duck and Minnie Mouse are examples of alliteration in character names.
21 Assonance Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Media: The use of words that have the same or similar vowel sounds near each other.Example in Hamlet:“With witchcraft of his wit, with traitorous gifts – O wicked wit and gifts, that have the power so to seduce! (Shakespeare I, v, 43-45)” This is an example of assonance because the “wi” vowel sound is present in several words that are close together.Example in Media:Assonance was used in a presidential campaign to draw the public’s attention to that candidate. “I like Ike” was used in Dwight Eisenhower's presidential campaign.
22 Consonance Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Media: The repetition of sounds produced by consonants within a sentence or phrase.Example in Hamlet:“Thou wretched, rash, intruding fool, farewell! (Shakespeare III, iv, 31)” This is an example of consonance because there is a repetition of the “r” sound.Example in Media:On example of consonance is in popular bands and song names. For example “Lynyrd Skynyrd” and ”What a Wonderful World.”
23 Rhyme Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Music: The correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words, often used at the end of lines of poetry or literature.Example in Hamlet:“The time is out of joint. O cursèd spite, that ever I was born to set it right! (Shakespeare I, v, )” This is an example of rhyme because the words “spite” and “right” rhyme.Example in Music:Rhyme is frequently used in music, especially rap. Rappers and other artists use rhyme to make the music flow better.
24 Rhythm Definition: Example in Hamlet: Example in Music: A regular, repeated pattern of sounds.Example in Hamlet:“More relative than this. The play’s the thing wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the king (Shakespeare II, ii, ).”Example in Music:Rhythm is used in music so the words will flow and rhyming is sometimes used to achieve this rhythm.
25 Meter Definition: Example in Hamlet: Examples in Music: An arrangement of words that have a certain rhythm and symbolic quantity.Example in Hamlet:Claudius’s opening monologue in Act I, scene ii is an example of meter. This monologue has a certain rhythm and symbolic quantity (Shakespeare I, ii, 1-40).Examples in Music:Composers and musicians sometimes use a certain meter when creating music; this helps the music flow.
26 End-stopping Line Definition: Example in Hamlet: An end-stopping line occurs with a definite punctuation mark, such as a period or a colon.Example in Hamlet:“Nymph, in thy orisons be all my sins remembered (Shakespeare III, I, 88).” This is an example of an end-stopping line because it ends with a definite punctuation mark, a period.
27 Run-on line Definition: Run-on line: Example in Media: A line of poetry or literature that ends without a pause and continues into the next line for its meaning.Run-on line:“And enterprises of great pitch and moment with this regard their currents turn awry and lose the name of action (Shakespeare III, I, 86-88)” This is an example of a run-on line because line 86 and 87 go on without a pause to complete its meaning.Example in Media:In the media, run-on lines can occur when a public figure is making a speech and the do not pause when explaining an idea.
28 Caesura Definition: Example in Hamlet: A complete pause within a line of poetry or literature.Example in Hamlet:“To be, or not to be: that is the question (Shakespeare III, I, 56).” This is an example of a caesura because there is a pause in the middle of the line marked by a colon.
29 Free Verse Definition: Example in Hamlet: Free verse does not follow a consistent musical pattern; it tends to follow natural speech or rhythm.Example in Hamlet:“The oppressor’s wrong, the proud man’s contumely, the pangs of despisèd love, the law’s delay (Shakespeare III, ii, 48-49).Example in Movies and Television:Most television shows and movie’s dialogue is considered free verse, because it does not follow a consistent musical pattern or rhythm.
30 Iambic Pentameter Definition: Example in Hamlet: The iambic pentameter is defined by the rhythm of pairing ten syllables for each line into five pairs.Example in Hamlet:“O, that this too too solid flesh would melt, thaw and resolve itself into a dew! Or that the Everlasting had not fixed his canon ‘gainst self-slaughter! Oh God, God (Shakespeare I, ii, )” This is an example of iambic pentameter because it is characterized by the rhythm of pairing ten syllables for each line into five pairs.
31 Grammatical/rhetorical pauses Definition:A natural pause, unmarked by punctuation, introduced into the reading of a line by its phrasing or syntax.Example in Hamlet:“Give it an understanding, but no tongue: I will requite your loves (Shakespeare I, ii, ).”Example in Movies and Television:Rhetorical pauses are used in dialogue among characters in television and movies.
32 Concluding Couplet Definition: Example in Hamlet: Examples in Music: Two verses in literature or poetry that usually have parallel structure and rhyme at the end. This occurs at the end of the passage or verse.Example in Hamlet:“Till then sit still, my soul. Foul deeds will rise, though all the earth o’erwhelm them, to men’s eyes (Shakespeare I, ii, ).” This is an example of a concluding couplet because “rise” and “eyes” rhyme and these are the last two verses of the passage.Examples in Music:Though are not common concluding couplets are sometimes used in music to end a song or rap.