Presentation on theme: "Using google maps plot the points on the map. In groups of 3 answer: Who rules Darfur? Who used to rule Darfur? What ethnic groups make up Darfur?"— Presentation transcript:
In groups of 3 answer: Who rules Darfur? Who used to rule Darfur? What ethnic groups make up Darfur? What might be some conflicts to come out of this?
Who are the key actors in the crisis? What caused the crisis? How have world leaders responded? What are the important dates and pivot points? What is genocide? What is the legal definition of genocide used by the UN?
Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR is the President of Sudan Tijani Sese is the Executive Chairman of Darfur Until British colonisation in 1916 Darfur was an independent Sultanate (like a kingdom)
Large mix of different ethnic groups Ethnic Arab peoples largely making up the government in the capital Khartoum In the western part of the country, where Darfur is, different African tribes make up the bulk of the population All groups are Muslim and all speak Arabic
Pre-existing disagreements about land Varying claims to supremacy/power Even though all speak Arabic this is not always the first language Post-colonial disintegration Law and order Basic services such as healthcare Civil War Famine
Sudan – large country in Africa Darfur – province in the west of the country Khartoum – the capital city, also used in reference to the official government of Sudan (‘Khartoum has lashed out at rebel forces…’) Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) – largest rebel army Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) – second largest rebel group Janjaweed – Arabic militia in Sudan
Historical Events: Like most African states, modern day Sudan has its roots in European imperialism and colonisation (it was a British colony) Sudan, like many ex-colonies has been made ‘poor’ by colonisation The area itself has a rich history, that often overlaps with Ancient Egypt and is over 4,000 years old The state of Sudan as we know it was created in 1956
Low Living Standards: But the state has large oil supplies The official Sudanese government in Khartoum receives the money that comes in from oil – they concentrate this money on resourcing the capital city and areas nearby The western province of Darfur does not get the investment that Khartoum gets They live very tough and difficult lives
Darfuris had had ENOUGH They formed rebel armies: The Sudanese Libration Army (SLA) The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) These rebel armies began to fight for independence from the Khartoum government – they wanted their own country that was made up by, and represented, their own people The government in Khartoum was not going to tolerate any independence movements
Civil War: Sudan vs South Sudan When the rebels attacked the Sudanese government in Darfur, the Khartoum government was fighting with other rebels in the South of Sudan (which is it’s own country today) So the government enlisted the ‘Janjaweed’ or the ‘Devils on Horseback’ who are fundamentalists They saw the African tribes in Darfur as inferior because Arabic was their second language
United Nations preventing armed conflict which usually provides the context for genocide, protection of civilians in armed conflict including a mandate for UN peacekeepers to protect civilians, ending impunity through judicial action in both national and international courts, information gathering and early warning through a UN Special Advisor for Genocide Prevention making recommendations to the UN Security Council on actions to prevent or halt genocide, and swift and decisive action along a continuum of steps, including military action.
United States of America George W Bush George Bush said in 2009 that “If by January 1 st the Sudanese government had stopped the killing of innocent civilians and accepted the development, then the US would implement plan B – a package of economic sanctions against Sudan approved by Bush himself. He stated that what was happening in Sudan was genocide and that there would be repercussions for Sudan.
United States of America Barak Obama In 2004 when Obama was still a senator he said “Genocide is underway in Darfur, Sudan. Already 50,000 Muslims have been killed and 1.2 million displaced by the Sudanese government militias and encouraged by Khartoum. We cannot in good conscience, stand by and let the genocide continue.” In 2007 he said “The United States has a moral obligation anytime you see humanitarian catastrophes. When you see a genocide in Rwanda, Bosnia or in Darfur, that is a stain on all of us, that is a stain on our souls”. Obama made it clear that the administration wanted to stop war in Darfur and implement the comprehensive peace agreement.
China China have worked to block many UN resolutions China has been Sudan’s chief diplomatic ally China invests heavily in Sudanese oil China supply Sudan’s military with helicopters, tanks, fighter planes, bombers, rocket launch propelled grenades and machine guns
International Criminal Court They have deeply investigated allegations of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide They have started to prosecute Bahr Idriss Abu Garda, a rebel leader They have issued multiple arrest warrants for some of Sudan’s highest offices of power: Omar Al-Bashir: President of Sudan Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman: Janjaweed Leader Ahmad Muhammad: Minister of State for the Interior Abdel Raheem Muhammad Hussein: Minister of Defence
Non-Governmental Organisations Providing health care in refugee and displaced persons camps Providing access to food and water Supporting and assisting farmers Supporting and providing schools for different types of education: Reproductive Health & sanitation General schooling
Spring 2003: SLM and JEM attack government military installations 2005 World Summit introduces the R2P: the international community must step in when genocide, war crimes and ethnic cleansing are occuring May 2006: UN Inquiry concludes Sudan hasn’t committed genocide but has committed war crimes April 2006: Sudan rejects UN peacekeeping May 2007: ICC issues an arrest warrant for the Sudanese government minister and head of the Janjaweed. Sudan refuses to hand them over December 2007: UNAMID enters Darfur March 2009: ICC issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Bashir July 2010: ICC issues another arrest warrant for Bashir; this time for genocide December 2010: Doho Peace Forum talks fail but possiblity of autonomy for Darfur discussed March 2012: ICC issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese Minister of Defence
Systematic killing or prevention from procreation of as many people that belong to a particular religion, race, ethnic or language group with a view to terminating the groups future survival. In Darfur this means killing as many civilians from the Darfur region as possible, in the process, killing the rebels (who are hard to find and identify amongst the civilian population) As a result, a massive scale of murder, rape and torture ensued Men, women and children were all targets Since 2003, when this conflict largely started, over 400,000 people have been killed Over 2.5 million people have been displaced (ran from their homes) and are now living in refugee camps
...any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group