2 Learning ObjectivesLO 1 Discuss important advantages of two-way communication.LO 2 Identify communication problems to avoid.LO 3 Describe when and how to use the various communication channels.LO 4 Summarize ways to become a better sender and receiver of information.
3 Learning Objectives (cont.) LO 5 Explain how to improve downward, upward, and horizontal communicationLO 6 Summarize how to work with the company grapevineLO 7 Describe the boundaryless organization and its advantages
4 Interpersonal Communication The transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbols
5 Interpersonal Communication The sender initiates the process by conveying information to the receiver—the person for whom the message is intended.The sender has a meaning he or she wishes to communicate and encodes the meaning into symbols (the words chosen for the message).Then the sender transmits, or sends, the message through some channel, such as a verbal or written medium.
6 Interpersonal Communication The receiver decodes the message (e.g., reads it) and attempts to interpret the sender’s meaning.The receiver may provide feedback to the sender by encoding a message in response to the sender’s message.
7 Interpersonal Communication Noiseinterference in the systemblocks perfect understandingExamples of Noiseringing telephonesthoughts about other thingssimple fatigue or stress
8 One-Way versus Two-Way Communication One-way communicationA process in which information flows in only one direction—from the sender to the receiver, with no feedback loop.
10 One-Way versus Two-Way Communication A process in which information flows in two directions—the receiver provides feedback, and the sender is receptive to the feedback.
11 Question___________ is the process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting informationPerceptionFilteringAcuityDiscernmentThe correct answer is b - filtering. See next slide
12 Communication Pitfalls PerceptionThe process of receiving and interpreting informationFilteringThe process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information
13 Oral and Written Channels Oral communicationincludes face-to-face discussion, telephone conversations, and formal presentations and speechesWritten communicationincludes , memos, letters, reports, computer files, and other written documents
14 Oral Communication Advantages Disadvantages Questions can be asked and answeredFeedback is immediate and directMore persuasiveIt can lead to spontaneous, ill-considered statements (and regret)There is no permanent record of it
15 Written Communication AdvantagesDisadvantagesMessage can be revised several timesPermanent record that can be savedMessage stays the same even if relayed through many peopleReceiver has more time to analyze the messageSender has no control over where, when, or if the message is readSender does not receive immediate feedbackReceiver may not understand parts of the message
16 Electronic Media Teleconferencing groups of people in different locations interact over telephone lines and perhaps also see one another on television monitors as they participate in group discussions (videoconferencing)
17 Advantages of Electronic Communication The sharing of more informationThe speed and efficiency in delivering routine messages to large numbers of people across vast geographic areasCan save companies untold amounts of paper, postage, meetings, travel budgets, conference calls, and the time required to coordinate it all
18 Disadvantages of Electronic Communication Difficulty of solving complex problems that require more extended, face-to-face interactionInability to pick up subtle, nonverbal, or inflectional clues about what the communicator is thinking or conveyingElectronic messages sometimes are seen by those for whom they are not intended
19 The Virtual Office Virtual office A mobile office in which people can work anywhere, as long as they have the tools to communicate with customers and colleagues.
20 Media Richness Media richness The degree to which a communication channel conveys information.
23 Nonverbal Skills Use time appropriately Make your office arrangement conducive to open communicationRemember your body language
24 ListeningReflectionProcess by which a person states what he or she believes the other person is saying
25 Ten Keys to Effective Listening Find an area of interestJudge content, not deliveryHold your fireListen for ideasBe flexible
26 Ten Keys to Effective Listening Resist distractionExercise your mind.Keep your mind openCapitalize on thought speedWork at listening
27 ObservingA vital source of useful observations comes from personally visiting people, plants, and other locations to get a firsthand viewYou must accurately interpret what you observe
28 Organizational Communication Downward communicationInformation that flows from higher to lower levels in the organization’s hierarchy
29 Information Loss in Downward Communication Figure 15.2
30 Organizational Communication CoachingDialogue with a goal of helping another be more effective and achieve his or her full potential on the job.
31 Organizational Communication Open-book managementPractice of sharing with employees at all levels of the organization vital information previously meant for management’s eyes only
32 Organizational Communication Upward communicationInformation that flows from lower to higher levels in the organization’s hierarchy.
33 Organizational Communication Horizontal communicationInformation moving between people on the same hierarchical levelallows sharing of information, coordination, and problem solving among unitshelps solve conflictsprovides social and emotional support to people.
34 Question What is the social network of informal communications? Second LifeFacebookGrapevineScuttlebuttThe correct answer is c – grapevine. See next slide
35 Informal Communication Grapevinethe social network of informal communications.provides people with informationhelps them solve problemsteaches them how to do their work successfully
36 Managing Informal Communication Don’t allow malicious gossip.Managers should talk to the key people involved to get the facts and their perspectivesNeutralize rumors once they have started
37 Managing Informal Communication Suggestions for preventing rumors from starting include:Explaining events that are important but have not been explainedDispelling uncertainties by providing factsWorking to establish open communications and trust over time.
38 Boundarylessness Boundaryless organization organization in which there are no barriers to information flow
39 Boundarylessness Boundaryless organization implies information available as needed moving quickly and easily enough so that the organization functions far better as a whole than as separate parts.
40 Video: EnergizerIs marketing one-way or two-way communication? Why?