3Ellipsis (1)Besides using the regularity of parallelism, an advertiser can throw in an unexpected irregularity:It entails syntactic reduction, a form of inexplicitness consisting in the unspoken, the unexpressed, but understood.It entails the omission or deletion of some items of the surface text, which are recoverable in terms of relation with the text itself.It is a major cohesive device, contributing to the efficiency and compactness of a text (Beaugrande-Dressler, 1981; Halliday-Hasan, 1976).ELLIPSIS
4Ellipsis (2)We can find ellipsis both in written and spoken language, but especially in face-to-face conversation, we often do not bother to encode information that can be understood from the linguistic or situational context.It is mainly a feature of orality, used to avoid repetition and redundancy.The use of ellipsis in advertising:Create ambiguity in order to attract the reader’s attentionInterpretation: visual or verbal text, referents outside the text (exophoric)Reproduce speech, informal register, in order to create a confidential relationship with the reader.
5Starts perfect… Stays perfect... Types of Ellipsis (1)Starts perfect… Stays perfect...(Maxfactor)ItItEllipsis of the SubjectIt entails the omission of the pronoun or noun functioning as Subject within the Nominal group.Are yourMates coming around?(Heineken)Verbal Ellipsis: Operator EllipsisIt involves the omission of the operator, so that the lexical verb is always explicit.Generally, the Subject is also omitted from the clauseAre youFeeling fruity?(Del Monte)
6Types of Ellipsis (2) “I keep my hands clean! Why can’t he?” (Lava soap)“I keep my hands clean! Why can’t he (keep his hands clean)?”Verbal Ellipsis: Lexical EllipsisIt involves the omission of the lexical verb, so that the verbal group consists only of the operator – expressing modality (can, will, would, may, might) or tense (be, have, do).
7The key to your dream car is in your home (Halifax Insurance)Summertime’s here(Häagen-Dazs)This is what a Honda feels like(Honda)
8DeixisA word or phrase whose meaning requires contextual information (e.g. in ads, the image on the page).A feature of orality, common in face-to-face conversation (→ shared situational context).Types of deictics:personal pronouns (I, you, we) or Adjs (your)Advs of time (now, then) and place (here, there)Demonstrative Adj/Pronouns (this, that)Use of the pronoun ‘you’ in ads is ambiguous as it is doubly exophoric.It refers to:Discourse participants – i.e. the receivers of the advert.The situation – i.e. the character in the picture
9ParalanguageIt is distinctive of oral communication and is used to express attitude and emotion.= voice tone, facial expression, gesture, body posture, physical proximity.In advertising, it is realised via speech, images, graphology and layout.Communicative importance of the way writing is displayed (Cook 1992).
10Reproducing speechDo us a favour, will you? Write to your MP about that Climate Change Bill. (Christian Aid)
11ExerciseUp to 15-hour wear. Light as air. New. Double Wear Light.Long-wear makeup is now lightweight makeup. Fresh, natural, comfortable. Goes on sheer, leaves skin free to breathe all day. Controls oil, resists smudging and won’t "melt" off through heat and humidity. For a look that stays vibrant and fresh whether it’s a workday, a workout or a weekend. It’s makeup that keeps up. Oil-free. Photo-friendly. Fragrance-free. Non-acnegenic. Dermatologist-tested.Extensive use of punctuation, especially full-stops > fragmentationMinor clauses > Fresh, natural, comfortable.Extensive use of Adjectives (Compound Adj) > Oil-free. Photo-friendly. Fragrance-free. Non-acnegenic. Dermatologist-tested.Ellipsis > Goes on sheer, leaves skin free, controls oil, resists smudging and won’t "melt" off ...
12To sum up...Linguistic features of ads (mainly on the syntactic level):ImperativesExclamations and interrogativesDisjunctive grammar, fragmentation, NPsExtensive use of adjectivesParallelismEllipsisDeixisParalanguage
13To sum up...Linguistic features of ads (mainly on the syntactic level):ImperativesExclamations and interrogativesDisjunctive grammar, fragmentation, NPsExtensive use of adjectivesParallelismEllipsisDeixisParalanguageTypical features of orality