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INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index

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1 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index
Diabstraksikan oleh: Smno.psl.ppsub.agst2012

2 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Environmental sustainability
involves making decisions and taking action that are in the interests of protecting the natural world, with particular emphasis on preserving the capability of the environment to support human life. Environmental sustainability is about making responsible decisions that will reduce your business' negative impact on the environment. It is not simply about reducing the amount of waste you produce or using less energy, but is concerned with developing processes that will lead to businesses becoming completely sustainable in the future. Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

3 Sustainable development issues therefore include:
Ecological sustainability: Preventing damage to major biological life cycles, maintaining ecosystems and biodiversity; Sustainable resource use: Resource use should not threaten ecological sustainability and should be within the renewable capacity; Sustainable waste management and pollution prevention: Generation of waste and release of pollution should not threaten ecological sustainability and should be within the absorption capacity of the receiving environment; Development of a sustainable society: This is concerned with social inclusion and economic development to improve the quality of life for all, both in the short and long term. Sustainable development and the "Triple bottom line" Diunduh dari: 7/12/2012

4 The Need for an Environmental Sustainability Index
Counterpart to Competitiveness Index and other economic performance measures Benchmark environmental performance Better goals, programs, and policies Clarify environment/economic tradeoffs Requirements for Environmental Impact Assessments Environmental impact assessments are required for any projects likely to have a significant effect on the environment, and are mandatory for large energy projects and wastewater treatment plants. Planning authorities require the developer to produce an Environmental Statement including: A description of the development and data on the main impacts it is likely to have on the environment; A description of the likely significant environmental impacts including direct and indirect impacts: Impacts on human beings Use of natural and material resources, air and water Impacts on ecology Emissions of pollutants and elimination of waste Impacts on landscape and cultural heritage Assessment and forecasts of the effects of the use of natural resources, emissions, and waste in the short to long term including indirect, cumulative, temporary, and permanent effects; Measures envisaged to avoid, reduce, or remedy adverse effects; An outline of alternative solutions which have been studied. Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012 Diunduh dari:

5 Analytical Foundations
Environmental Stresses Air Pollution Water Pollution/Use Ecosystem Stress Waste/Consumption Population Analytical Foundations Environmental Systems Urban Air Quality Water Quantity Water Quality Biodiversity Land Social and Institutional Capacity Science/Technical Capacity Rigorous Policy Debate Environmental Regulation and Management Tracking Environmental Conditions Eco-efficiency Public Choice Failures Global Stewardship Contribution to International Cooperation Impact on Global Commons Human Vulnerability Basic Sustenance Public Health Environmental Disasters Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

6 EMPIRICAL INPUTS For each factor, we identified 1-6 variables to serve as quantitative measures (65 total) For this pilot, we weighted the factors equally in computing the Index Factors 65 variables 5 components Index Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

7 Example: Social and Institutional Capacity
This is how the index is built up, piece by piece Example of variables utilized: Environmental Regulation and management Factor: 1) Transparency and stability of environmental regulations 2) Percentage of urban population with access to adequate sanitation 3) Percent land area under protected status (IUCN Categories I-V) Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

8 Example: Social and Institutional Capacity
Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

9 Example: Social and Institutional Capacity
Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

10 Putting the Index to Use: Assessing Environment/Economic Tradeoffs
Environmental sustainability does not appear to impose a constraint on economic growth These results are meant to illustrate the kinds of analysis that one can perform with an ESI – to show that it is a useful index. They are not meant to be iron-clad scientific results at this stage As hypothesized by Michael Porter, there may be a connection between good economic performance and good environmental performance Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

11 Why does this matter? Four perspectives on the relationship between economic performance and environmental sustainability Difficult tradeoffs – policy dilemmas Environmental Kuznets: just be patient Environment Economics Good things go together – policy “free lunch” Good indicators are vital All combinations are possible – importance of responsible policy choices Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

12 (Does the world really need another environmental indicator?)
Measuring environmental sustainability is possible and useful This is a surprising, and encouraging, result Some aspects appear to be easier to quantify than others Some surprises here (capacity v. stress) LIVING GREENER Save energy and cost Save and re-use water Reduce wastes and recycle Travel snarter (Sumber: Energy is connected to nearly every aspect of daily life. But the energy sources we rely on most - like coal, oil and natural gas - are being used up and can’t be replaced for millions of years. Producing energy from these sources also releases harmful greenhouse gases which impact our environment. Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

13 A future ESI can improve on the Pilot
Investment in data creation Most global environmental monitoring programs are based on 19th century models – time to move forward Pluralistic, distributed networks (no central bottlenecks) Greater use of civil society Remote sensing and other advanced technologies More sophisticated methods to weight factors and test validity, understand underlying assumptions and values Factor analysis, time series analysis, regression analysis Interactive, open version Permit users to change factors and variables, change weights, add new variables Scalable version Permit users to integrate global, national, regional and local indicators as appropriate to their needs Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

14 Environmental Systems
Urban Air Quality Water Quantity Water Quality Biodiversity Land Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

15 URBAN AIR QUALITY

16 KUALITAS UDARA Air quality is defined as a measure of the condition of air relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species or to any human need or purpose. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and is different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each range is assigned a descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories are associated with each AQI range. The AQI can go up (meaning worse air quality) due to a lack of dilution of air pollutants. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone, temperature inversion, or low wind speeds lets air pollution remain in a local area, leading to high concentrations of pollutants and hazy conditions. An agency might encourage members of the public to take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

17 INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air is currently or how polluted it is forecast to become. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. Different countries have their own air quality indices which are not all consistent. Different countries also use different names for their indices such as Air Quality Health Index, Air Pollution Index and Pollutant Standards Index. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

18 Air quality in Canada . Air quality in Canada has been reported for many years with provincial Air Quality Indices (AQIs). Significantly, AQI values reflect air quality management objectives, which are based on the lowest achievable emissions rate, and not exclusively concern for human health. The Air Quality Health Index or (AQHI) is a scale designed to help understand the impact of air quality on health. It is a health protection tool used to make decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity levels during increased levels of air pollution. The Air Quality Health Index provides a number from 1 to 10+ to indicate the level of health risk associated with local air quality. On occasion, when the amount of air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed 10. The AQHI provides a local air quality current value as well as a local air quality maximums forecast for today, tonight, and tomorrow, and provides associated health advice. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 + Risk: Low (1-3) Moderate (4-6) High (7-10) Very high (above 10) Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

19 Air quality in Canada Health Risk Air Quality Health Index
Health Messages At Risk population *General Population Low 1-3 Enjoy your usual outdoor activities. Ideal air quality for outdoor activities Moderate 4-6 Consider reducing or rescheduling strenuous activities outdoors if you are experiencing symptoms. No need to modify your usual outdoor activities unless you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. High 7-10 Reduce or reschedule strenuous activities outdoors. Children and the elderly should also take it easy. Consider reducing or rescheduling strenuous activities outdoors if you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. Very high Above 10 Avoid strenuous activities outdoors. Children and the elderly should also avoid outdoor physical exertion. Reduce or reschedule strenuous activities outdoors, especially if you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

20 INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA DI USA
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed an index which they use to report daily air quality. This AQI is divided into six categories indicating increasing levels of health concern. An AQI value over 300 represents hazardous air quality whereas if it is below 50 the air quality is good Air Quality Index (AQI) Values Levels of Health Concern Colors 0 to 50 Good Green 51 to 100 Moderate Yellow 101 to 150 Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Orange 151 to 200 Unhealthy Red 201 to 300 Very Unhealthy Purple 301 to 500 Hazardous Maroon Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

21 I = the (Air Quality) index, C = the pollutant concentration,
. The AQI is based on the five pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The EPA has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards for all of these pollutants to protect public health. An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the standard for the pollutant.[3] The air quality index is a piecewise linear function of the pollutant concentration. At the boundary between AQI categories, there is a discontinuous jump of one AQI unit. To convert from concentration to AQI this equation is used:[15] where: I = the (Air Quality) index, C = the pollutant concentration, Clow = the concentration breakpoint that is ≤ , Chigh = the concentration breakpoint that is ≥ , Ilow = the index breakpoint corresponding to , Ihigh = the index breakpoint corresponding to . Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

22 Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
EPA's table of breakpoints for PM2.5 is: Category 15.4 50 Good 15.5 40.4 51 100 Moderate 40.5 65.4 101 150 Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 65.5 150.4 151 200 Unhealthy 150.5 250.4 201 300 Very Unhealthy 250.5 350.4 301 400 Hazardous 350.5 500.4 401 500 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

23 INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ)
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. IAQ can be affected by gases (including carbon monoxide, radon, volatile organic compounds), particulates, microbial contaminants (mould, bacteria) or any mass or energy stressor that can induce adverse health conditions. Source control, filtration and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building surfaces and computer modelling of air flow inside buildings. Diunduh dari: … …………… 28/11/2012

24 INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ)
Second-hand smoke Second-hand smoke is tobacco smoke which affects other people other than the 'active' smoker. Second-hand tobacco smoke includes both a gaseous and a particulate phase, with particular hazards arising from levels of carbon monoxide (as indicated below) and very small particulates (at PM2.5 size) which get past the lung's natural defences. The only certain method to improve indoor air quality as regards second-hand smoke is the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws. Common pollutants 1.1 Second-hand smoke 1.2 Radon 1.3 Moulds and other allergens 1.4 Carbon monoxide 1.5 Volatile organic compounds 1.6 Legionella 1.7 Other bacteria 1.8 Asbestos fibres 1.9 Carbon dioxide 1.10 Ozone Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

25 Volatile organic compounds
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions.[5] Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints, varnishes, and wax all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. Fuels are made up of organic chemicals. All of these products can release organic compounds during usage, and, to some degree, when they are stored. Testing emissions from building materials used indoors has become increasingly common for floor coverings, paints, and many other important indoor building materials and finishes. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

26 INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ):
For additional support visit our client service page. Before “indoor environmental quality” or “IEQ” has completely lost its meaning, we want to bring attention to its definition which is a comprehensive term from the field of indoor climate engineering representing the collective influence from the indoor environment on all the physiological sensory systems of the human body which can be represented by; IEQ = IAQ +ITQ + ILQ + ISQ + IOQ + IVQ where I = Indoor, Q = Quality and, A = Air T = Thermal L = Lighting S = Sound O = Odour (odor) V = Vibrations Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

27 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC)
A paint job that leaves you lightheaded, or new upholstery that has a funny scent-these are VOCs at work. These insidious chemicals are emitted, at room temperature, from many common household materials, paints, finishes, furnishings, and textiles. Examples of VOCs include benzene, formaldehyde, and methylene chloride. Some occur naturally in the materials; others are added during the manufacturing process. The offgassing of VOCs can have both short- and long-term adverse health effects, ranging from nausea and eye irritation to nervous system damage and cancer. These days, it's getting easier and easier to find no-VOC and low-VOC products such as paints, adhesives, and fabrics. Concentrations of VOCs in the air are considerably higher indoors than out, and VOCs in poorly ventilated buildings are a major cause of sick building syndrome (SBS). Look for products that are free of these chemicals whenever possible; otherwise, when using paints, varnishes, cleaning solvents, or any other products that contain them, take care to ventilate the work area well and dispose of the leftovers and waste properly afterward. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

28 WATER QUALITY It’s a simple fact - we can’t live without water.
People use it every day for drinking, washing and cooking, as well as for irrigating crops and generating electricity. Water is also essential for maintaining the health of natural systems, which in turn support us. There are many actions to take to use water wisely at home and in the garden to help secure water for our future. Sumber:

29 KUALITAS AIR Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.[2] It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact and drinking water. The parameters for water quality are determined by the intended use. Work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water that is treated for human consumption, industrial use, or in the environment. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

30 ENVIRONMENTAL WATER QUALITY
Environmental water quality, also called ambient water quality, relates to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and oceans. Water quality standards for surface waters vary significantly due to different environmental conditions, ecosystems, and intended human uses. Toxic substances and high populations of certain microorganisms can present a health hazard for non-drinking purposes such as irrigation, swimming, fishing, rafting, boating, and industrial uses. These conditions may also affect wildlife, which use the water for drinking or as a habitat. Modern water quality laws generally specify protection of fisheries and recreational use and require, as a minimum, retention of current quality standards Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

31 Freshwater environmental quality parameters
Freshwater environmental quality parameters are the natural and man-made chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics of rivers, lakes and ground-waters, the ways they are measured and the ways that they change. The values or concentrations attributed to such parameters can be used to describe the pollution status of an environment, its biotic status or to predict the likelihood or otherwise of a particular organisms being present. Monitoring of environmental quality parameters is a key activity in managing the environment, restoring polluted environments and anticipating the effects of man-made changes on the environment. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

32 HUMAN CONSUMPTION Contaminants that may be in untreated water include microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria; inorganic contaminants such as salts and metals; organic chemical contaminants from industrial processes and petroleum use; pesticides and herbicides; and radioactive contaminants. Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse (which may lower the level of the water). In urbanized areas throughout the world, water purification technology is used in municipal water systems to remove contaminants from the source water (surface water or groundwater) before it is distributed to homes, businesses, schools and other users. Water drawn directly from a stream, lake, or aquifer and that has no treatment will be of uncertain quality. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

33 INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC USE
Dissolved minerals may affect suitability of water for a range of industrial and domestic purposes. The most familiar of these is probably the presence of ions of calcium and magnesium which interfere with the cleaning action of soap, and can form hard sulfate and soft carbonate deposits in water heaters or boilers. Hard water may be softened to remove these ions. The softening process often substitutes sodium cations. Hard water may be preferable to soft water for human consumption, since health problems have been associated with excess sodium and with calcium and magnesium deficiencies. Softening may sacrifice nutrition for cleaning effectiveness Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

34 DRINKING WATER INDICATORS
An electrical conductivity meter is used to measure total dissolved solids The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category: Alkalinity Color of water pH Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), etc.) Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium) Microorganisms such as fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli), Cryptosporidium, and Giardia lamblia Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.) Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Radon Heavy metals Pharmaceuticals Hormone analogs. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

35 Physical Indicators/ assessment
INDICATOR OF WATER Physical Indicators/ assessment Water Temperature Specifics Conductance or EC, Electrical Conductance, Conductivity Total suspended solids (TSS) Transparency or Turbidity Total dissolved solids (TDS) Odor of Water Color of water Taste of Water Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

36 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012
INDICATOR OF WATER Chemical Indicators/ assessment pH Total Hardness, Hard water, TH = Permanent Hardness + Temporary Hardness Dissolved oxygen (DO) Nitrat-N Orthofosfat Chemical oxygen demand (COD) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Pestisida Logam-logam berat. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

37 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012
INDICATOR OF WATER Biological Indicators/ assessment Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera Escherichia Coli or E.Coli or E.coli Coliform Biological monitoring metrics have been developed in many places, and one widely used measure is the presence and abundance of members of the insect orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT). EPT indexes will naturally vary from region to region, but generally, within a region, the greater the number of taxa from these orders, the better the water quality. EPA and other organizations in the United States offer guidance on developing a monitoring program and identifying members of these and other aquatic insect orders. Individuals interested in monitoring water quality who cannot afford or manage lab scale analysis can also use biological indicators to get a general reading of water quality. One example is the IOWATER volunteer water monitoring program, which includes a benthic macroinvertebrate indicator key. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

38 WATER QUALITY INDEX A water quality index provides a single number (like a grade) that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water quality data into information that is understandable and useable by the public. This type of index is similar to the index developed for air quality that shows if it’s a red or blue air quality day. The use of an index to "grade" water quality is a controversial issue among water quality scientists. A single number cannot tell the whole story of water quality; there are many other water quality parameters that are not included in the index. The index presented here is not specifically aimed at human health or aquatic life regulations. However, a water index based on some very important parameters can provide a simple indicator of water quality. It gives the public a general idea the possible problems with the water in the region. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

39 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012
. Water Quality Standards and Reports 1. WHO Guideline World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline for Drinking Water Standards. 2. ICMR Standards ICMR Standards for Drinking Water. 3. International standards or ISI Satandards Water quality regulated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is covered in the section of ICS ,[19] ranging from water sampling, drinking water, industrial class water, sewage water, and examination of water for chemical, physical or biological properties. ICS covers the standards of water supply systems.[20] Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

40 . Water Quality Criteria
Section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act requires us to develop criteria for water quality that accurately reflects the latest scientific knowledge. These criteria are based solely on data and scientific judgments on pollutant concentrations and environmental or human health effects. Section 304(a) also provides guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards. Criteria are developed for the protection of aquatic life as well as for human health.  More general information on criteria. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

41 . Aquatic Life Aquatic Life criteria lists chemical concentration goals to protect surface water for aquatic life use. Biological criteria are based on the numbers and kinds of organisms present and describe the biological condition of aquatic communities inhabiting surface waters. Nutrients are substances used by living things that promote growth (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). We are developing nutrient criteria to prevent over enrichment in surface waters of the U.S. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

42 . Human Health Human Health includes technical information and guidance on surface water, drinking water and microbials. Microbial (Pathogen) criteria are used to protect the public from exposure to harmful levels of pathogens in ground and surface waters, food sources, and finished drinking water. Recreational Criteria protect people who swim and play in coastal recreational waters from exposure to pathogens. We held an Experts Scientific Workshop to help map our future directions. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

43 . Water Quality Index and Indicators
The integrity of an ecosystem is typically assessed through its ability to provide goods and services on a continuous basis. Together with the air we breathe, the provision of clean water is arguably the most fundamental service provided by ecosystems. Yet, human activities have fundamentally altered inland water ecosystems and their catchments. As a consequence species dependant on inland waters are more likely to go extinct, and future extinction rates of freshwater animals could be up to 5 times higher than for terrestrial animals. Water quality refers to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a water body. These characteristics determine how and for what water can be used and the species and ecosystem process it can support. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

44 . Global Drinking Water Quality Index
Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) all parameters regardless of WHO designation Source Water Quality Index (SWQI) health and microbial criteria only arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluoride, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate, nitrite, faecal coliforms Acceptability Water Quality Index (AWQI) acceptability criteria only ammonia, chloride, iron, pH, sodium, sulphate, zinc 4X4 Rule:  Each parameter that contributes to the index must be measured at least 4 times per year at stations that have measured a minimum of 4 parameters per year. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

45 Calculation of Global Water Quality Indices
Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

46 usage domain correspond to each class (Adriano et al., 2006).
. In most of the cases, this index represents a numerical expression used in the assessment of the flowing water quality, through the framing of the values in five classes on the interval going from 1 to 100; a certain quality state, respectively a usage domain correspond to each class (Adriano et al., 2006). The raw values of each quality parameter must be compared with the standard threshold values that are taken into account for the computation of the index, in the view of the qualitative assessment. In all cases when the index must be determinate, the computation formula is the following: WQI – the Water Quality Index i – the quality parameter qi – the registered value wi – the rank of implication of the parameter in the computation formula The values of the Water Quality Index that were thus obtained are distributed on a number of intervals, which render the quality of the respective water and the usage domain (Table no. 1): 10–25 percent - highly polluted; 26–50 percent - polluted; 51–70 percent - reasonable; 71–90 percent - good; 91–100 percent - very good (House and Ellis, 1987). Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

47 WATER QUANTITY

48 DOMESTIC WATER QUANTITY, SERVICE LEVEL AND HEALTH
The quantity of water delivered and used for households is an important aspect of domestic water supplies, which influences hygiene and therefore public health. Summary of requirement for water service level to promote health Service level Access measure Needs met Level of health concern No access (quantity collected often below 5 l/c/d) More than 1000m or 30 minutes total collection time Consumption – cannot be assured Hygiene – not possible (unless practised at source) Very high Basic access (average quantity unlikely to exceed 20 l/c/d) Between 100 and 1000m or 5 to 30 minutes total Consumption – should be assured Hygiene – handwashing and basic food hygiene possible; laundry/ bathing difficult to assure unless carried out at source High Intermediate access about 50 l/c/d) Water delivered through one tap onplot (or within 100m or 5 minutes total Consumption – assured Hygiene – all basic personal and food hygiene assured; laundry and bathing should also be assured Low Optimal access 100 l/c/d and above) Water supplied through multiple taps continuously Consumption – all needs met Hygiene – all needs should be met Very Low Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

49 WATER QUANTITY ESTIMATION
The quantity of water required for municipal uses for which the water supply scheme has to be designed requires following data: Water consumption rate (Per Capita Demand in litres per day per head) Population to be served.     Quantity= Per capita demand x Population Water Consumption Rate It is very difficult to precisely assess the quantity of water demanded by the public, since there are many variable factors affecting water consumption. The various types of water demands, which a city may have, may be broken into following classes: Water Consumption for Various Purposes: Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

50 WATER CONSUMPTION FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES Types of Consumption
Types of Consumption Normal Range (lit/capita/day) Average % 1 Domestic Consumption 65-300 160 35 2 Industrial and Commercial Demand 45-450 135 30 3 Public Uses including Fire Demand 20-90 45 10 4 Losses and Waste 45-150 62 25 Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

51 FIRE FIGHTING DEMAND The per capita fire demand is very less on an average basis but the rate at which the water is required is very large. The rate of fire demand is sometimes traeted as a function of population and is worked out from following empirical formulae: Authority Formulae (P in thousand) Q for 1 lakh Population) 1 American Insurance Association Q (L/min)=4637 ÖP ( ÖP) 41760 2 Kuchling's Formula Q (L/min)=3182 ÖP 31800 3 Freeman's Formula Q (L/min)= (P/5+10) 35050 4 Ministry of Urban Development Manual Formula Q (kilo liters/d)=100 ÖP for P>50000 31623 Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

52 FACTORS AFFECTING PER CAPITA DEMAND:
Size of the city: Per capita demand for big cities is generally large as compared to that for smaller towns as big cities have sewered houses. Adanya industri-industri. Kondisi iklim. Perilaku kebiasaan orang dan status ekonominya. Kualitas air: If water is aesthetically $ medically safe, the consumption will increase as people will not resort to private wells, etc. Pressure in the distribution system. Efficiency of water works administration: Leaks in water mains and services; and unauthorised use of water can be kept to a minimum by surveys. Biaya air. Policy of metering and charging method: Water tax is charged in two different ways: on the basis of meter reading and on the basis of certain fixed monthly rate. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

53 FLUCTUATIONS IN RATE OF DEMAND
Average Daily Per Capita Demand               = Quantity Required in 12 Months/ (365 x Population) If this average demand is supplied at all the times, it will not be sufficient to meet the fluctuations. Seasonal variation: The demand peaks during summer. Firebreak outs are generally more in summer, increasing demand. So, there is seasonal variation . Daily variation depends on the activity. People draw out more water on Sundays and Festival days, thus increasing demand on these days. Hourly variations are very important as they have a wide range. During active household working hours i.e. from six to ten in the morning and four to eight in the evening, the bulk of the daily requirement is taken. During other hours the requirement is negligible. Moreover, if a fire breaks out, a huge quantity of water is required to be supplied during short duration, necessitating the need for a maximum rate of hourly supply. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

54 FLUCTUATIONS IN RATE OF DEMAND
The adequate quantity of water must be available to meet the peak demand. To meet all the fluctuations, the supply pipes, service reservoirs and distribution pipes must be properly proportioned. The water is supplied by pumping directly and the pumps and distribution system must be designed to meet the peak demand. The effect of monthly variation influences the design of storage reservoirs and the hourly variations influences the design of pumps and service reservoirs. As the population decreases, the fluctuation rate increases. Maximum daily demand = 1.8 x average daily demand Maximum hourly demand of maximum day i.e. Peak demand                = 1.5 x average hourly demand                = 1.5 x Maximum daily demand/24                = 1.5 x (1.8 x average daily demand)/24                = 2.7 x average daily demand/24                = 2.7 x annual average hourly demand Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

55 DESIGN PERIODS & POPULATION FORECAST
This quantity should be worked out with due provision for the estimated requirements of the future . The future period for which a provision is made in the water supply scheme is known as the design period. Design period is estimated based on the following: Useful life of the component, considering obsolescence, wear, tear, etc. Expandability aspect. Anticipated rate of growth of population, including industrial, commercial developments & migration-immigration. Available resources. Performance of the system during initial period. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

56 Water quantity stressors include :
The word stress is used to talk about problems with water quantity, or the ability of a drinking water system to supply enough water. It is important to understand when, where and how water is leaving a drinking water source and compare it to how quickly that source can be naturally replenished. It is also important to look at water takings and water supply trends. What results from looking at all of these factors is a water budget, which is useful in predicting water supply shortages and planning for those shortages. Water quantity stresses can lead to water quality issues as too little water in a source can mean contaminants are more concentrated and therefore, may be above acceptable levels. Water quantity stressors include : water that is taken by municipalities for drinking water; water that is taken by industry for manufacturing processing; water that is taken by business for activities such as food and beverage processing; water that is taken by agricultural for irrigation; private well use. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

57 POTENTIAL WATER QUANTITY ISSUES
Taking too much water from a source of water, such as a surface water body or aquifer, can mean that the water source is stressed. This may develop into to a water quantity issue should more water be taken from a source than can be naturally replenished. Some of the common reasons for taking water include: Municipal water takings for domestic, industrial, commercial and institutional use Agricultural water takings Private wells taking water for domestic use Industrial takings such as for aggregate extraction, mining, forestry, food processing, bottled water and greenhouse operations Recreational takings such as for golf courses and bait harvesters in some areas. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

58 THE THINGS TO PROTECT WATER:
Conserve water. Not only is conserving water helpful to maintaining a constant supply of drinking water, too little water in a source can mean contaminants are more concentrated and, therefore, may be above acceptable levels. Be an avid recycler. Recycling paper products, glass, metals and plastics cuts down on pollution and also reduces the amount of water we use. Manufacturing recycled paper uses 58% less water than making paper from virgin wood pulp. Making glass from recycled materials cuts related air pollution 20% and water pollution 50%. Dispose of hazardous waste properly. Take unused paints, cleaners, pesticides, and medical prescriptions to your local hazardous waste facility. Take used engine oil to recycling facilities. Use drop cloths or tarps when working with hazardous materials such as paints, driveway sealers or wood stain to prevent spills from leaking into the ground. If a spill occurs, clean it up with an absorbent material such as kitty litter or sawdust and scoop the contaminant into a container. Use non-toxic products for cleaning and environmentally-friendly soaps, shampoos and personal care products. Remember that what you use in your house goes back down your drain. Clean up pet waste which contains nutrients and pathogens that can run into storm sewers during a rain storm. Prevent pollutants from entering into runoff by reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides, fertilizers, sidewalk salts and by not over-watering your lawn. If you run an agricultural operation and haven’t already, consider developing and implementing a Nutrient Management Plan. Take care when refueling gas tanks for cars, lawn mowers, chainsaws, weed trimmers, tractors or other machinery to avoid spilling fuel on the ground. Also take care when changing engine oil. One litre of gas or oil can contaminate a million litres of groundwater. Take your car to commercial car washes designed to prevent pollutant runoff from entering storm sewers. Use commercial car washes that use water efficient sprays, reducing their water consumption Diunduh dari: /12/2012

59 Manage animal waste on farms to prevent water contamination.
SOME WAYS TO PROTECT WATER FOR THOSE WHO LIVE ON RURAL PROPERTIES INCLUDE: Keep your septic system in proper working order and empty the tank regularly. Protect and maintain your private well. Wells provide pathways for contaminants to enter the groundwater. If you have a well, be sure it is sealed properly and if you own a well you no longer use, have it properly decommissioned by a licensed well technician. Test your well water regularly to ensure the water is safe to drink. Manage animal waste on farms to prevent water contamination. Manage livestock grazing. Overgrazing exposes soil and increases erosion. Protect the vegetation along the banks of ponds, streams and lakes to help control erosion, provide food for aquatic life, and maintain cooler water temperatures necessary for some species of fish. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

60 WATER QUANTITY EVALUATION
Water quantity is evaluated differently for rivers and streams, lakes and groundwater. Rivers and streams. Streamflow hydrographs record data from gauges installed in waterways, indicating how much water flows past a fixed point, over time. Lakes. Lake bathymetry uses sonar devices to measure variations in water depth, then links this measurement to the lake's surface area and volume change with depth. This allows for estimates of water gained and lost as the lake's level goes up or down. Bathymetric surveys are commercially available for many Alberta lakes. Groundwater . Difficult to quantify because of geological variables, but can be achieved using computer flow modeling. A pump test can demonstrate the sustainable productivity of a single, groundwater well. However the groundwater resource of an entire area is at best an approximation. Precipitation . Alberta Environment and its stakeholders have a network of precipitation gauges throughout the province, providing a good measure of distribution and quantity of the province's rainfall. This is critical in evaluating potential water availability. Alberta also collects real time precipitation from many stations and regularly produces summary maps of the province-wide distribution of precipitation. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

61 BIODIVERSITY QUALITY

62 BIODIVERSITY = KEANEKA RAGAMAN HAYATI
Keragaman hayati (biodiversity atau biological diversity) merupakan istilah yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan kekayaan berbagai bentuk kehidupan di bumi ini mulai dari organisme bersel tunggal sampai organisme tingkat tinggi. Keragaman hayati mencakup keragaman habitat, keragaman spesies (jenis) dan keragaman genetik (variasi sifat dalam spesies) Keanekaragaman Hayati adalah tingkat variasi bentuk kehidupan dalam suatu ekosistem tertentu, bioma, atau seluruh planet. Keanekaragaman Hayati adalah ukuran dari kesehatan ekosistem. Keanekaragaman Hayati adalah sebagian fungsi dari iklim. Pada habitat darat, daerah tropis biasanya kaya sedangkan daerah-daerah kutub dukungan spesies yang lebih sedikit. Perubahan lingkungan yang cepat biasanya menyebabkan kepunahan massa. Salah satu perkiraan adalah bahwa kurang dari 1% dari spesies yang telah ada di Bumi yang masih ada. Keanekaragaman Hayati adalah keseluruhan variasi berupa bentuk, penampilan, jumlah, dan sifat yang dapat ditemukan pada makhluk hidup.Keanekaragaman hayati merupakan lahan penelitian dan pengembangan ilmu yang sangat berguna untuk kehidupan manusia. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

63 KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI
Keanekaragaman hayati menekankan pada semua jenis spesies tumbuhan, hewan dan mikroorganisme juga dengan ekosistimnya dimana mereka merupakan bagian yang tak terpisahkan, termasuk jumlah dan frekuensi ekosistem, spesies dan gen yang saling berkaitan. Ada tiga macam keanekaragaman hayati, yaitu : a. Keanekaragaman spesies (Species Diversity) b. Keanekaragaman ekosistem (Ecosystem Diversity) c. Keanekaragaman genetika (Genetic Diversity) Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

64 Species Richness Index: Simpson’s Index
Keanekaragaman spesies / jenis (Species Diversity) Keanekaragaman spesies terbentuk oleh adanya kesesuaian kandungan genetika yang mengatur sifat dari kebakaan dengan lingkungan terhadap anggota jenis yang sama yang dalam hal ini memiliki kerangka dasar, komponen genetika khususnya kromosom yang sama. Species Richness Index: Simpson’s Index Simpson gave the probability of any two individuals drawn at random from an infinitely large community belonging to different species. The Simpson index is therefore expressed as 1-D or 1/D. Simpson’s index is heavily weighed towards the most abundant species in the sample while being less sensitive to species richness. It has been shown that once the number of species exceeds 10 the underlying species abundance distribution is important in determining whether the index has a high or low value. The D value which is standing for the dominance index is used in pollution monitoring studies. As D increases, diversity decreases. (diunduh dari: Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

65 Species Diversity Indices: Shannon-Wiener Index
Shannon and Wiener independently derived the function which has become known as Shannon index of diversity. This indeed assumes that individuals are randomly sampled from an independently large population. The index also assumes that all the species are represented in the sample. Log2 is often used for calculating this diversity index but any log base may be used. It is of course essential to be consistent in the choice of log base when comparing diversity between samples or estimating evenness. The value of Shannon diversity is usually found to fall between 1.5 and 3.5 and only rarely it surpasses 4.5. It has been reported that under log normal distribution, 105 specieswillbe needed to produce a value of Shannon diversity more than 5. Expected Shannon diversity is also used (Exp H’) as an alternative to H’. Exp H’ is equivalent to the number of equally common species required to produce the value of H’ given by the sample. The observed diversity (H’) is always compared with maximum Shannon diversity (Hmax) which could possibly occur in a situation where all species were equally Abundant. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012 Species Diversity Indices Shannon-Wiener Index Shannon and Wiener independently derived the function which has become known as Shannon index of diversity. This indeed assumes that individuals are randomly sampled from an independently large population. The index also assumes that all the species are represented in the sample. Log2 is often used for calculating this diversity index but any log base may be used. It is of course essential to be consistent in the choice of log base when comparing diversity between samples or estimating evenness. The value of Shannon diversity is usually found to fall between 1.5 and 3.5 and only rarely it surpasses 4.5. It has been reported that under log normal distribution, 105 specieswillbe needed to produce a value of Shannon diversity more than 5. Expected Shannon diversity is also used (Exp H’) as an alternative to H’. Exp H’ is equivalent to the number of equally common species required to produce the value of H’ given by the sample. The observed diversity (H’) is always compared with maximum Shannon diversity (Hmax) which could possibly occur in a situation where all species were equally abundan

66 Keanekaragaman ekosistem (Ecosystem Diversity)
Merupakan suatu kesatuan lingkungan yang melibatkan unsur-unsur biotik, faktor fisik (iklim, tanah dan air) dan faktor kimia (keasaman) yang saling berinteraksi. Beberapa tipe (kelompok) keanekaragaman ekosistem antara lain : Ekosistem bahari: Terdiri dari ekosistem laut dan ekosistem pantai Ekosistem darat”: Terdiri dari vegetasi dataran rendah, vegetasi pegunungan dan vegetasi munson. An ecosystem is a community plus the physical environment that it occupies at a given time. An ecosystem can exist at any scale, for example, from the size of a small tide pool up to the size of the entire biosphere. However, lakes, marshes, and forest stands represent more typical examples of the areas that are compared in discussions of ecosystem diversity. The diversity of an ecosystem is dependent on the physical characteristics of the environment, the diversity of species present, and the interactions that the species have with each other and with the environment. Therefore, the functional complexity of an ecosystem can be expected to increase with the number and taxonomic diversity of the species present, and the vertical and horizontal complexity of the physical environment. (Sumber: Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

67 KEANEKARAGAMAN GENETIKA (GENETIC DIVERSITY)
Setiap kerangka dasar komponen genetika tersusun ribuan faktor kebakaan keturunan. Satu faktor pengatur kebakaan disebut gen, suatu lingkungan yang memuat tumbuhan yang liar/sudah didomestikasi. Keanekaragaman genetik (genetic diversity) adalah suatu tingkatan biodiversitas yang merujuk pada jumlah total variasi genetik dalam keseluruhan spesies yang mendiami sebagian atau seluruh permukaan bumi yang dapat didiami. Ia berbeda dari variabilitas genetik, yang menjelaskan kecenderungan kemampuan suatu karakter/sifat untuk bervariasi yang dikendalikan secara genetik. Pengukuran keanekaragaman genetik Keanekaragaman genetika suatu populasi dapat diperkirakan dengan menggunakan beberapa pengukuran sederhana. Keanekaragaman gen, adalah proporsi lokus polimorfik diseluruh genom. Heterozigositas, adalah jumlah rata-rata individu dengan lokus polimorfik. Alel per lokus, juga digunakan untuk mendemonstrasikan variabilitas. (sumber: Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

68 ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY implies the existence of different species within an ecosystem. It can also be defined as the degree of variations among the life forms in an ecosystem or planet. ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY is the variety of different natural systems or ecosystems in a particular area. Examples of ecosystem diversity are deserts, forests, wetlands, rain-forests, marine ecosystems etc. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

69 LAND QUALITY

70 LAND . The holistic concept of Land was already recognized in the Framework for Land Evaluation (FAO 1976), repeated implicitly in UNCED's chapter 10 of 1993, and formally described in FAO It reads: "Land is a delineable area of the earth's terrestrial surface, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface, including those of the near-surface climate, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, buildings, etc.)." Diunduh dari: /11/2012

71 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012
LAND FUNCTION The various functions of land are also described in FAO's 1995 background paper: Land is the basis for many life support systems, through production of biomass that provides food, fodder, fibre, fuel, timber and other biotic materials for human use, either directly or through animal husbandry including aquaculture and inland and coastal fishery (the production function); Land is the basis of terrestrial biodiversity by providing the biological habitats and gene reserves for plants, animals and micro-organisms, above and below ground (the biotic environmental function); Land and its use are a source and sink of greenhouse gases and form a co-determinant of the global energy balance - reflection, absorption and transformation of radiative energy of the sun, and of the global hydrological cycle (the climate regulative function); Land regulates the storage and flow of surface and groundwater resources, and influences their quality (the hydrologic function); Land is a storehouse of raw materials and minerals for human use (the storage function); Land has a receptive, filtering, buffering and transforming function of hazardous compounds (the waste and pollution control function); Land provides the physical basis for human settlements, industrial plants and social activities such as sports and recreation (the living space function); Land is a medium to store and protect the evidence of the cultural history of humankind, and source of information on past climatic conditions and past land uses (the archive or heritage function); Land provides space for the transport of people, inputs and produce, and for the movement of plants and animals between discrete areas of natural ecosystems (connective space function). Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

72 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012
LAND ATTRIBUTES Land has attributes, characteristics, properties and qualities (or limitations/conditions): An attribute, or variable, is a neutral, over-arching term for a single or compound aspect of the land; A characteristic is an attribute which is easily noticed and which serves as a distinguishing element for different types of land; it may or may not have a practical meaning (e.g., soil colour or texture, or height of forest cover are characteristics without giving direct information on land quality); A property is an attribute that already gives a degree of information on the value of the land type; A land quality (or limitation) is a complex attribute of land which acts in a manner distinct from the actions of other land qualities in its influence on the suitability of land for a specified kind of use. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

73 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012
LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO PRODUCTIVITY FROM CROPS OR OTHER PLANT GROWTH Crop yields (a resultant of many qualities listed below). Moisture availability. Nutrient availability. Oxygen availability in the root zone. Adequacy of foothold for roots. Conditions for germination. Workability of the land (ease of cultivation). Salinity or sodicity. Soil toxicity. Resistance to soil erosion. Pests and diseases related to the land. Flooding hazard (including frequency, periods of inundation). Temperature regime. Radiation energy and photoperiod. Climatic hazards affecting plant growth (including wind, hail, frost). Air humidity as affecting plant growth. Drying periods for ripening of crops. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

74 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO DOMESTIC ANIMAL PRODUCTIVITY
Productivity of grazing land Climatic hardships affecting animals. Endemic pests and diseases. Nutritive value of grazing land. Toxicity of grazing land. Resistance to degradation of vegetation. Resistance to soil erosion under grazing conditions. Availability of drinking water. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

75 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO FOREST PRODUCTIVITY
The qualities listed may refer to natural forests, forestry plantations, or both. Mean annual increments of timber species (a resultant of many qualities listed under "Atmospheric qualities“). Types and quantities of indigenous timber species. Site factors affecting establishment of young trees. Pests and diseases. Fire hazard. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

76 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO MANAGEMENT AND INPUTS
The qualities listed may refer to arable use, animal production or forestry. Terrain factors affecting mechanization (trafficability). Terrain factors affecting construction and maintenance of access-roads (accessibility). Size of potential management units (e.g. forest blocks, farms, fields). Location in relation to markets and to supplies of inputs. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

77 Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit
ATMOSPHERIC QUALITIES Atmospheric moisture supply: rainfall, length of growing season, evaporation, dew formation. Atmospheric energy for photosynthesis: temperature, daylength, sunshine conditions. Atmospheric conditions for crop ripening, harvesting and land preparation: occurrence of dry spells. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

78 Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit
LAND COVER QUALITIES Value of the standing vegetation as "crop", such as timber. Value of the standing vegetation as germ plasm: biodiversity value. Value of the standing vegetation as protection against degradation of soils and catchment. Value of the standing vegetation as regulator of local and regional climatic conditions. Regeneration capacity of the vegetation after complete removal. Value of the standing vegetation as shelter for crops and cattle against adverse atmospheric influences. Hindrance of vegetation at introduction of crops and pastures: the land "development" costs. Incidence of above-ground pests and vectors of diseases: health risks of humans and animals. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

79 Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit
LAND SURFACE AND TERRAIN QUALITIES Surface receptivity as seedbed: the tilth condition. Surface treatability: the bearing capacity for cattle, machinery, etc. Surface limitations for the use of implements (stoniness, stickiness, etc.): the arability. Spatial regularity of soil and terrain pattern, determining size and shape of fields with a capacity for uniform management. Surface liability to deformation: the occurrence or hazard of wind and water erosion. Accessibility of the land: the degree of remoteness from means of transport. The presence of open freshwater bodies for use by humans, animals or fisheries. Surface water storage capacity of the terrain: the presence or potential of ponds, on-farm reservoirs, bunds, etc. Surface propensity to yield run-off water, for local water harvesting or downstream water supply. Accumulation position of the land: degree of fertility renewal or crop damaging by overflow or overblow. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

80 Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit
SOIL QUALITIES Physical soil fertility: the net moisture storage capacity in the rootable zone. Physical soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of waterlogging in the rootable zone (i.e. the absence of oxygen). Chemical soil fertility: the availability of plant nutrients. Chemical soil toxicity: salinity or salinization hazard; excess of exchangeable sodium. Biological soil fertility: the N-fixation capacity of the soil biomass; and its capacity for soil organic matter turnover. Biological soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of soil-borne pests and diseases. Substratum (and soil profile) as source of construction materials. Substratum (and soil profile) as source of minerals. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

81 Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit
SUBSTRATUM OR UNDERGROUND QUALITIES Groundwater level and quality in relation to (irrigated) land use. Substratum potential for water storage (local use) and conductance (downstream use). Presence of unconfined freshwater aquifers. Substratum (and soil profile) suitability for foundation works (buildings, roads, canals, etc.) Diunduh dari: /11/2012

82 LAND DEGRADATION CRITERIA
Light degradation: The terrain has somewhat reduced agricultural suitability, but is suitable for use in local farming systems. Restoration to full productivity is possible by modifications of the management system. Original biotic functions are still largely intact. Moderate degradation: The terrain has greatly reduced agricultural productivity but is still suitable for use in local farming systems. Major improvements are required to restore productivity. Original biotic functions are partially destroyed. Strong degradation: The terrain is non-reclaimable at farm level. Major engineering works are required for terrain restoration. Original biotic functions are largely destroyed. Extreme degradation: The terrain is unreclaimable and beyond restoration. Original biotic functions are fully destroyed. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

83 LAND EVALUATION Land evaluation is the process of assessment of land performance when used for specific purposes, involving the execution and interpretation of surveys and studies of land forms, soils, vegetation, climate and other aspects of land in order to identify and make a comparison of promising kinds of land use in terms applicable to the objectives of the evaluation. Land evaluation should combine the various qualities/limitations of the land in relation to the envisaged use or non-use. Obviously, the relative value of all land qualities has to be weighted for each of such uses. For the physico-chemical qualities of the land, such as the net soil moisture storage capacity, the availability of plant nutrients, or the land surface arability, this weighting can be done quantitatively. For a number of the bio-environmental qualities such as biodiversity or archival values a qualitative assessment is necessary which may be non-tangible in an economic sense. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

84 ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES
Air Pollution Water Pollution/Use Ecosystem Stress Waste/Consumption Population Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

85 AIR POLLUTION

86 (Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution)
POLUSI UDARA Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution. Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause respiratory and other diseases, which can be fatal. Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment. (Sumber: Diunduh dari: /11/2012

87 POLUTAN UDARA A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone — one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

88 CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION:
Greenhouse effect, Particulate contamination, Increased UV radiation, Acid rain, Increased ground level ozone concentration, Increased levels of nitrogen oxides. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

89 Major primary pollutants produced by human activity include
Sulphur oxides (SOx) - especially sulphur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion, and are also produced naturally during thunderstorms by electrical discharge. Carbon monoxide (CO)- is a colourless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide (CO2) - a colourless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gas also associated with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such as combustion, cement production, and respiration. Volatile organic compounds - VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Atmospheric particulate matter - Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles could cause cardiopulmonary disease. Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use. Ammonia (NH3) - emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. Odors — such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, nuclear events, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

90 Secondary pollutants include:
Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog. Smog is a kind of air pollution; the word "smog" is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs. Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) - similarly formed from NOx and VOCs. Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. A variety of persistent organic pollutants (POP), which can attach to particulate matter. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

91 SUMBER POLUSI UDARA Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere. 1. Anthropogenic sources (human activity): "Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices. "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc. Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management. Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other solvents Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane. Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry. 2. Natural sources Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires Vegetation, in some regions, emits environmentally significant amounts of VOCs on warmer days. Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

92 FAKTOR EMISI Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that people attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant (e.g., kilograms of particulate emitted per megagram of coal burned). Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

93 SARANA KONTROL POLUSI UDARA
Particulate control Mechanical collectors (dust cyclones, multicyclones) Electrostatic precipitators An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream. 3. Baghouses Designed to handle heavy dust loads, a dust collector consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system (distinguished from air cleaners which utilize disposable filters to remove the dust). 4. Particulate scrubbers Wet scrubber is a form of pollution control technology. The term describes a variety of devices that use pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it through a pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to remove the pollutants. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

94 SARANA KONTROL POLUSI UDARA
NOx control Low NOx burners Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) NOx scrubbers Exhaust gas recirculation Catalytic converter (also for VOC control) VOC abatement Adsorption systems, such as activated carbon Flares Thermal oxidizers Catalytic converters Biofilters Absorption (scrubbing) Cryogenic condensers Vapor recovery systems Acid Gas/SO2 control Wet scrubbers Dry scrubbers Flue-gas desulfurization Mercury control Sorbent Injection Technology Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) K-Fuel Dioxin and furan control Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

95 AIR POLLUTION INDEX (API) - CHINA
The API level is based on the level of 5 atmospheric pollutants, namely sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particulates (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) measured at the monitoring stations throughout each city. An individual score is assigned to the level of each pollutant and the final API is the highest of those 5 scores. The pollutants can be measured quite differently. SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentration are measured as average per day. CO and O3 are more harmful and are measured as average per hour. The final API value is calculated per day. The scale for each pollutant is non-linear, as is the final API score. Thus an API of 100 does not mean twice the pollution of API at 50, nor does it mean twice as harmful. While an API of 50 from day 1 to 182 and API of 100 from day 183 to 365 does provide an annual average of 75, it does not mean the pollution is acceptable even if the benchmark of 100 is deemed safe. This is because the benchmark is a 24 hour target. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

96 AIR POLLUTION INDEX (API) - CHINA
API and Health Implications (Daily Targets) API Air Pollution Level Health Implications 0 - 50 Excellent No health implications Good Slightly Polluted Slight irritations may occur, individuals with breathing or heart problems should reduce outdoor exercise. Lightly Polluted Moderately Polluted Healthy people will be noticeably affected. People with breathing or heart problems will experience reduced endurance in activities. These individuals and elders should remain indoors and restrict activities. Heavily Polluted 300+ Severely Polluted Healthy people will experience reduced endurance in activities. There may be strong irritations and symptoms and may trigger other illnesses. Elders and the sick should remain indoors and avoid exercise. Healthy individuals should avoid out door activities. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

97 AIR POLLUTION INDEX (API) - HONGKONG
In Hong Kong, there are two types of API: General API and Roadside API. The EPD reports the latest APIs hourly. The table below shows the official Health Implications of the respective API levels in Hong Kong. API Air Pollution Level Health Implications; 0 - 25 Low Not expected. Medium Not expected for the general population. High Acute health effects are not expected but chronic effects may be observed if one is persistently exposed to such levels. Very High People with existing heart or respiratory illnesses may notice mild aggravation of their health conditions. Generally healthy individuals may also notice some discomfort. Severe People with existing heart or respiratory illnesses may experience significant aggravation of their symptoms. There may also be widespread symptoms in the healthy population (e.g. eye irritation, wheezing, coughing, phlegm and sore throats). The API is based on the level of 6 atmospheric pollutants, namely sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), respirable suspended particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), lead (Pb), measured at all the monitoring stations throughout the territory. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

98 AIR POLLUTION INDEX (API)- MALAYSIA
The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API or Air Pollution Index. Four of the index's pollutant components (i.e., carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) are reported in ppmv but PM10 particulate matter is reported in μg/m3. This scale below shows the Health classifications used by the Malaysian government. API Air Pollution Level 0 - 50 Good Moderate Unhealthy Very unhealthy 301+ Hazardous If the API exceeds 500, a state of emergency is declared in the reporting area. Usually, this means that non-essential government services are suspended, and all ports in the affected area are closed. There may also be a prohibition on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the reporting area excluding the food sector. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

99 WATER USE / WATER POLLUTION

100 WATER USE = PEMANFAATAN AIR
Water use can mean the amount of water used by a household or a country, or the amount used for a given task or for the production of a given quantity of some product or crop. The term "water footprint" is often used to refer to the amount of water used by an individual, community, business, or nation. The water footprint of an individual, community or business is defined as the total volume of freshwater used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business. Water use is measured in water volume consumed (evaporated) and/or polluted per unit of time. A water footprint can be calculated for any well-defined group of consumers (e.g., an individual, family, village, city, province, state or nation) or producers (e.g., a public organization, private enterprise or economic sector). The water footprint is a geographically explicit indicator, not only showing volumes of water use and pollution, but also the locations. However, the water footprint does not provide information on how the embedded water negatively or positively affects local water resources, ecosystems and livelihoods. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

101 COMPONENTS OF WATER FOOTPRINT
WATER USE = PEMANFAATAN AIR COMPONENTS OF WATER FOOTPRINT A water footprint consists of three components: blue, green, and grey. The blue water footprint is the volume of freshwater that evaporated from the global blue water resources (surface water and ground water) to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community. The green water footprint is the volume of water evaporated from the global green water resources (rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture). The grey water footprint is the volume of polluted water that associates with the production of all goods and services for the individual or community. The latter can be estimated as the volume of water that is required to dilute pollutants to such an extent that the quality of the water remains at or above agreed water quality standards. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

102 Water footprint of products
WATER USE = PEMANFAATAN AIR Water footprint of products The water footprint of a product is the total volume of freshwater used to produce the product, summed over the various steps of the production chain. The water footprint of a product refers not only to the total volume of water used; it also refers to where and when the water is used Research by the Cranfield University calculated the amount of water required to produce various common foods in the United Kingdom: (Davies, Jack (31 March 2009). "Experts warn of major UK water shortage". Farmers Guardian. Retrieved 30 May 2011.) Product Amount in Litres Amount in Gallons 1 cup of tea 32.4 l 8.6 US gal 1 imperial pint of beer 160 l 42.3 US gal 1 glass of wine 120 l 31.7 US gal 1 glass of milk 200 l 52.8 US gal 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of beef 15,000 l 3,962.6 US gal 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of poultry 6,000 l 1,585.0 US gal 250 grams (8.8 oz) packet of M&M's 1153 l 304.6 US gal 575 grams (20.3 oz) jar of Dolmio pasta sauce 202 l 53.4 US gal Diunduh dari: /12/2012

103 Water footprint of individual consumers
WATER USE = PEMANFAATAN AIR Water footprint of individual consumers The water footprint of an individual refers to the sum of his or her direct and indirect freshwater use. The direct water use is the water used at home, while the indirect water use relates to the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed. The average global water footprint of an individual is 1,385 m3 per year.The average consumer in the United States has a water footprint of 2,842 m3 per year, while the average resident in China and India has a water footprint of 1,071 and 1,089 m3 per year, respectively. (Gleick, Peter H. (2012). "The Water Footprint of Humanity". PNAS. doi: /pnas ). The average Finnish water footprint is 1,730 m³ water per person per year. The water footprint of the U.K. is 1,695 m³ water/person/year. (Chapagain, A.K. and Orr, S.. "U.K. Water Footprint: The Impact of the U.K.'s Food and Fibre Consumption on Global Water Resources, Volume 1". WWF-UK (WWF-UK). and volume 2 Chapagain, A.K. and Orr, S.. "Volume 2“) Diunduh dari: /12/2012

104 Water footprint of companies Water footprint of nations
WATER USE = PEMANFAATAN AIR Water footprint of companies The water footprint of a business, the 'corporate water footprint', is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used directly or indirectly to run and support a business. It is the total volume of water use to be associated with the use of the business outputs. The water footprint of a business consists of water used for producing/manufacturing or for supporting activities and the indirect water use in the producer’s supply chain. Water footprint of nations The water footprint of a nation is the water used to produce the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the nation. The internal water footprint is the appropriation of domestic water resources; the external water footprint is the appropriation of water resources in other countries. About 65% of Japan's total water footprint comes from outside the country; about 7% of the Chinese water footprint falls outside China ("Waterfootprint.org Water footprint and virtual water.”) Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

105 WATER USE = PEMANFAATAN AIR
100 WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER There are a number of ways to save water, and they all start with you. For cold drinks keep a pitcher of water in the refrigerator instead of running the tap. This way, every drop goes down you and not the drain. Put food coloring in your toilet tank. If it seeps into the toilet bowl without flushing, you have a leak. Fixing it can save up to 1,000 gallons a month. Use drip irrigation for shrubs and trees to apply water directly to the roots where it's needed. Use a water-efficient showerhead. They're inexpensive, easy to install, and can save you up to 750 gallons a month. Next time you add or replace a flower or shrub, choose a low water use plant for year-round landscape color and save up to 550 gallons each year. Drop your tissue in the trash instead of flushing it and save water every time. Adjust your watering schedule each month to match seasonal weather conditions and landscape requirements. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

106 Many Different Consumers of water
WATER USE = PEMANFAATAN AIR Many Different Consumers of water Unlike other resources, water has no equal substitute or alternative in most contexts.  It is used in a myriad of ways, typically broken down into the following categories: Domestic use – drinking, cooking, washing, sanitation Agricultural use – irrigation, livestock, harvesting and processing food, fishing Industrial use – manufacturing, production of goods and services Energy production – electricity generation, cooling of power plants Transportation – shipping of goods by ocean, rivers, and lakes Culture and Leisure – swimming, boating, tourism, hotels, religious practices Environment – ecosystem health, maintenance of natural systems Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

107 PENCEMARAN AIR Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

108 PENCEMARAN AIR Point sources
Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain. The U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes. The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial stormwater, such as from construction sites Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

109 PENCEMARAN AIR Nonpoint sources
Nonpoint source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. Nutrient runoff in stormwater from "sheet flow" over an agricultural field or a forest are also cited as examples of NPS pollution. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots, roads and highways, called urban runoff, is sometimes included under the category of NPS pollution. However, this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface waters, and is a point source. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

110 PENCEMARAN AIR Nonpoint sources
Nonpoint source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. Nutrient runoff in stormwater from "sheet flow" over an agricultural field or a forest are also cited as examples of NPS pollution. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots, roads and highways, called urban runoff, is sometimes included under the category of NPS pollution. However, this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface waters, and is a point source. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

111 PENCEMARAN AIR PATHOGEN
Coliform bacteria are a commonly used bacterial indicator of water pollution, although not an actual cause of disease. Other microorganisms sometimes found in surface waters which have caused human health problems include: Burkholderia pseudomallei Cryptosporidium parvum Giardia lamblia Salmonella Novovirus and other viruses Parasitic worms (helminths). High levels of pathogens may result from inadequately treated sewage discharges. This can be caused by a sewage plant designed with less than secondary treatment (more typical in less-developed countries). In developed countries, older cities with aging infrastructure may have leaky sewage collection systems (pipes, pumps, valves), which can cause sanitary sewer overflows. Some cities also have combined sewers, which may discharge untreated sewage during rain storms. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

112 PENCEMARAN AIR POLUTAN ORGANIK Detergents
Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water, such as chloroform Food processing waste, which can include oxygen-demanding substances, fats and grease Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalides and other chemical compounds Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil) and lubricants (motor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, from stormwater runoff Tree and bush debris from logging operations Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as industrial solvents, from improper storage. Chlorinated solvents, which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are denser. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) Trichloroethylene Perchlorate Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

113 PENCEMARAN AIR POLUTAN ANORGANIK
Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants) Ammonia from food processing waste Chemical waste as industrial by-products Fertilizers containing nutrients--nitrates and phosphates—which are found in stormwater runoff from agriculture, as well as commercial and residential use[16] Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban stormwater runoff) and acid mine drainage Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

114 PENCEMARAN AIR Macroscopic pollution—large visible items polluting the water—may be termed "floatables" in an urban stormwater context, or marine debris when found on the open seas, and can include such items as: Trash or garbage (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste) discarded by people on the ground, along with accidental or intentional dumping of rubbish, that are washed by rainfall into storm drains and eventually discharged into surface waters Nurdles, small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets Shipwrecks, large derelict ships. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

115 PENCEMARAN AIR THERMAL POLLUTION
Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Elevated water temperatures decreases oxygen levels (which can kill fish) and affects ecosystem composition, such as invasion by new thermophilic species. Urban runoff may also elevate temperature in surface waters. Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

116 INDEKS PENCEMARAN AIR Evaluation of water pollution status and pollution levels can be indicated by several indicators, which can be divided into two specific categories: one is physical and chemical indicator, the other is a composite indicator of organic pollution and nutrients. 1. Physical and chemical indicator includes: Water temperature: physical and chemical properties of water and water temperature are closely linked. The solubility of water soluble gases (such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc.), biological and microbial activity in water, non-ionic ammonia, salinity and pH, and other solutes are subject to water temperature changes. Color: pure water is colorless and transparent. Clean water, when shallow, should be colorless, and light green or blue when deep. Odor: odorless and tasteless water, though contaminants absence cannot be ensured, can help build up trust of users to the water quality. Turbidity is to describe water containing silt, clay, organic, inorganic, and suspended materials such as plankton and micro-organisms, the sediment of which is not only slow but difficult. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

117 INDEKS PENCEMARAN AIR Physical and chemical indicator includes:
Transparency refers to the clarity of sample water. Clean water is transparent, but when there are suspended matters and colloids in water, its transparency will be reduced. pH refers to the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion activity in water. pH =- lg [H+]. The pH value of natural water is usually between 6 and 9, which is also a controlled scope of the pH value for our wastewater discharge. Residue: The total residue refers to the material left in the containers after the evaporation or drying of water or sewage in a certain temperature, including the "unfilterable residue" (all the residues that is trapped in the filter, also known as suspended solids) and "filterable residue" (all residues that can go through the filter, also known as soluble solids). Salinity: Salinity refers to the total amount of inorganic mineral compositions contained in water. Regular consumption of low-mineral water will destroy the balance of alkali metals and alkaline earth metal ions in human body, resulting in disease. Regular consumption of high-mineral water will lead to stone disease. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

118 INDEKS PENCEMARAN AIR Physical and chemical indicator includes:
Conductivity: Conductivity is a numerical solution of conduction current capabilities. The conductivity of pure water is very low, but when the water contains inorganic acid, alkali or salt, the conductivity can increase. Conductivity is often used in the indirect speculation of the total concentration of ions in water. Oxidation-reduction potential: A water body is a quite complex system that contains several oxidation-reduction couples whose oxidation-reduction potentials are a combined result of oxidation and reduction of a number of oxidation substances and reduction substances. Acidity: Acidity refers to all substances in the water neutralizing alkali, i.e. total amount of materials which release H+ or generate H+ through the hydrolysis. Alkalinity: Contrary to acidity, alkalinity refers to all substances in the water neutralizing acid, i.e. total amount of materials which can accept proton H +. Carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide exists in water mainly in the form of dissolved gas molecules, but a small amount of it also combines with water and generates carbonic acid which would have reaction with alkaline substances in rocks the sediments of which can be removed from water via precipitation. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

119 INDEKS PENCEMARAN AIR Composite indicator of organic pollution and nutrients Dissolved oxygen: The dissolved oxygen content in natural water depends on the balance between water and atmospheric oxygen. Saturation of dissolved oxygen is closely related to the partial pressure of oxygen in the air, atmospheric pressure, water temperature. Dissolved oxygen in clean surface water is generally close to saturation. But because of the growth of algae, dissolved oxygen may be too saturated. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) refers to the amount of oxidant consumed in the oxidation of water samples in specified condition. Chemical oxygen demand reflects the contamination degree of the restored the materials in water which include organic matter, nitrite, ferrous salt, sulfide and so on. It is common for water to be contaminated; therefore, COD can also be used as an indicator of relative content of organic matters, was organic pollution is very common, so the chemical oxygen demand but also as one of the indicators relative content of organic matter, but it only reflects the oxidation of organic pollution not polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PCB, dioxin-like pollution, etc. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

120 INDEKS PENCEMARAN AIR 2. Composite indicator of organic pollution and nutrients Permanganate index refers to the amount of potassium permanganate consumed as oxidant to deal with water samples in acid or alkaline medium. Both permanganate index and CODcr are referred to as chemical oxygen demands, only that they are values measured under different conditions. Thus, permanganate index is often considered as a comprehensive index of the degree of pollution of the surface water by organic pollutants and reduction inorganic substances. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): Domestic sewage and industrial wastewater contains large amount of organic matters in various forms. When the waters are polluted, the decomposition of organic matters in the water would consume a lot of dissolved oxygen, and thereby undermining the balance of oxygen in water, deteriorating water quality and causing death to fish and other aquatic organisms because of hypoxia. Total organic carbon (TOC) is a composite indicator of the total organic matters contained in water by testing the content of carbon. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

121 INDEKS PENCEMARAN AIR 2. Composite indicator of organic pollution and nutrients Phosphorus: The percentage content of the weight of phosphorus in the earth's crust is about 0.118%. Phosphorus exists in nature in the forms of all kinds of phosphates. Phosphorus exists in the cells, bones and teeth, and is essential for plants and animals and the human body. Daily need of phosphorus of 1.4g for a normal person can be supplemented through water and food, but in the forms of inorganic phosphate or organic phosphorus compounds. TP: In the natural water and waste water, almost all phosphorus in various phosphate forms exist, they are divided into orthophosphate, condensed phosphates (pyrophosphate, metaphosphate and multi-phosphate) and organic phosphorus combined (e.g., phospholipids, etc.). They exist in the solution, humus particles or aquatic organisms. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

122 INDEKS PENCEMARAN AIR 2. Composite indicator of organic pollution and nutrients Kjeldahl Nitrogen: Kjeldahl method refers to the content of nitrogen tested via the measure of Kjeldahl. It includes ammonia nitrogen and organic nitrogen compounds tested to be able to translate into ammonium compounds under this condition. Such organic nitrogen compounds mainly refer to the proteins, amino acids, nucleic acid, urea, and a large number of synthetic organic nitrogen compounds whose nitrogen are negative trivalent. It does not include nitrogen compounds like azide compounds, in conjunction nitrogen, azo, hydrazone, nitrate, nitrite, nitro, nitroso, nitrile, oxime and semi-Kabbah hydrazone. TN: The discharge of great deal of domestic sewage, agricultural drainage, or nitrogen-containing industrial waste water into water bodies would cause the organic nitrogen and various inorganic nitrogen compounds to increase and a large number of organisms and micro-organisms to breed, consuming a great deal of dissolved oxygen in water and leading to water quality deterioration. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

123 INDEKS PENCEMARAN AIR 2. Composite indicator of organic pollution and nutrients Nitrate Nitrogen: nitrate nitrogen in water is the most stable of the nitrogen compounds in the forms of nitrosyl and ammonia nitrogens in the aerobic environment, as well as the final product of decomposition of nitrogen-containing compounds after inorganic reaction. Nitrite Nitrogen refers to the intermediates of nitrogen cycle and is unstable. It can be oxidized to nitrate or reduced to ammonia according to environmental conditions. Ammonia refers to the chemical combination of ammonia in the form of ammonia or ammonium ions. The composition ratio between the two depends on the pH value and temperature of water. When the pH value is high, the proportion of free ammonia is higher. On the contrary, when the pH value is low, the proportion of ammonia is lower. But water temperature is an opposite case. The main source of ammonia in water is the decomposition products of nitrogen-containing organic compounds under reaction of micro-organisms in some industrial wastewater like coking wastewater and drainage from the ammonia fertilizer plants. In addition, in oxygen-free environment, the nitrite existing in water can also be affected by micro-organisms and reduced to ammonia. In an aerobic environment, ammonia in water can also turn into nitrite and may even further turn into nitrate. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

124 INDEKS PENCEMARAN AIR Selection of Suitable Aggregation Function for Estimation of Aggregate Pollution Index for River Ganges in India. Ram Pal Singh; Satyendra Nath; Subhash C. Prasad; and Arvind K. Nema. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 134, No. 8, August 1, 2008. The present study aims to select the most appropriate aggregation function for estimation of the Ganga River pollution index GRPI. Following the Delphi technique based on expert opinion, 16 water pollutant variables are selected; the weights of each pollutant variable based on their relative significance are determined, and the average subindex curves for each variable are drawn. Using the weights, average parameter’s value and the corresponding subindex value, 18 different aggregation functions are tested and analyzed. Literature reveals that most aggregation methods suffer from ambiguity and eclipsing problems due to faulty selection of aggregation function. From the results of the present analysis, 12 aggregation functions are screened out on the basis of ambiguity and eclipsing, constant functional behavior, and nonaccountability of weights in functions criteria. Finally, the remaining 6 aggregation functions are subjected to sensitivity analysis. From the results of sensitivity analysis, it is concluded that the weighted arithmetic mean function, being a true linear, least ambiguous and eclipsing free function, is the most representative aggregation function for estimation of GRPI for River Ganges.

125 ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS

126 ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS Environmental stress refers to physical, chemical, and biological constraints on the productivity of species and on the development of ecosystems. When the exposure to environmental stressors increases or decreases in intensity, ecological responses result. Stressors can be natural environmental factors, or they may result from the activities of humans. Some environmental stressors exert a relatively local influence, while others are regional or global in their scope. Stressors are challenges to the integrity of ecosystems and to the quality of the environment. Read more: Ecological Stress - Environmental, Species, Stressors, and Ecosystems - JRank Articles Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

127 ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS Species and ecosystems have some capacity to tolerate changes in the intensity of environmental stressors. This is known as resistance, but there are limits to this attribute, which represent thresholds of tolerance. When these thresholds are exceeded by further increases in the intensity of environmental stress, substantial ecological changes are caused. Read more: Ecological Stress - Environmental, Species, Stressors, and Ecosystems - JRank Articles Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

128 Environmental stressors can be grouped into the following categories:
Physical stress refers to brief but intense exposures to kinetic energy. This is a type of ecological disturbance because of its acute, episodic nature. Examples include volcanic eruptions, windstorms, and explosions. Wildfire is also a disturbance, during which much of the biomass of an ecosystem is combusted, and the dominant species may be killed. Pollution occurs when chemicals are present in concentrations large enough to affect organisms and thereby cause ecological changes. Toxic pollution can be caused by gases such as sulfur dioxide and ozone, by elements such as arsenic, lead, and mercury, and by pesticides such as DDT. Inputs of nutrients such as phosphate and nitrate can influence productivity and other ecological processes, causing a type of pollution known as eutrophication. Read more: Ecological Stress - Environmental, Species, Stressors, and Ecosystems - JRank Articles Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

129 Environmental stressors can be grouped into the following categories:
Thermal stress occurs when releases of heat influence ecosystems, as happens in the vicinity of natural hot-water vents on the ocean floor, and near industrial discharges of heated water. Radiation stress is associated with excessive loads of ionizing energy. This can occur on mountain tops where there are intense exposures to ultraviolet radiation, and in places where there are exposures to radioactive materials. Climatic stress is associated with excessive or insufficient regimes of temperature, moisture, solar radiation, and combinations of these. Tundra and deserts are examples of climatically stressed ecosystems, while tropical rainforests occur under a relatively benign climatic regime. Biological stresses are associated with the diverse interactions that occur among organisms of the same or different species. Biological stresses can result from competition, herbivory, predation, parasitism, and disease. The harvesting and management of species and ecosystems by humans is a type of biological stress. The introduction of invasive, non-native species may be regarded as a type of biological pollution. Read more: Ecological Stress - Environmental, Species, Stressors, and Ecosystems - JRank Articles Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

130 Diunduh dari: www.crcnetbase.com/.../NOE1566706407.ch...….. 2/12/2012
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS HEAT STRESS Heat Stress is a condition that arises from a variety of factors among the most important of which are: 1. the ambient temperature, 2. the relative humidity, 3. the level of effort required by the job, and 4. the clothing being worn by an exposed individual. An individual who is experiencing Heat Stress will tend to exhibit an array of measurable symptoms which can include some or all of the following: 1. an increased pulse rate, 2. a greater rate of perspiration, and 3. an increase in the individual’s body temperature Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

131 ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS Heat Stress Disorders
The five physical disorders that can arise from heat stress, listed in increasing order of se- verity, are as follows: 1. Heat Rash: A heat rash — also often referred to as “prickly heat” — tends to arise in an individual after a period of prolonged sweating. It is characterized by an itchy reddening of the skin and a sudden decrease in the rate of perspiration. 2. Cramps: Heat cramps arise as a result of prolonged periods of a combination of sweating and a lack of fluid and salt intake. Such a situation causes an overall body electrolyte imbalance, and the primary symptomatic manifestation is severe muscle cramps, most frequently in the abdomen. 3. Dehydration: Dehydration is the result of excessive fluid loss. Among its most common causes are: excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, and/or alcohol consumption. Symptoms of dehydration are often subtle but include exhaustion, overall weakness, dry mouth, decreased work output, etc. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

132 Diunduh dari: www.crcnetbase.com/.../NOE1566706407.ch...… 2/12/2012
HEAT STRESS DISORDERS Heat Exhaustion: Heat exhaustion arises from extreme cases of dehydration. It is characterized by some or all of the following conditions or symptoms: increasing pulse rate, decreasing blood pressure, slight to moderate increases in body temperature, fatigue, increasing levels of sweating, lack of skin color, dizziness, blurred vision, head-ache, decreased work output, and collapse. 5. Heat Stroke: Heat stroke is usually the result of very significant overexposure to the factors of heat stress. It can also arise from drug or alcohol abuse and on occasion from genetic factors. Heat stroke is almost always accompanied by an increase in body temperature to levels greater than 104°F (40°C). Symptomatic indications include: chills, irritability, hot & dry skin, convulsions, and unconsciousness. Diunduh dari: 2/12/2012

133 COLD STRESS Cold Stress differs dramatically from Heat Stress. Typically a body will adapt to conditions of Heat Stress by increasing its level of perspiration in an effort to provide increased cooling. Cold Stress adaptations usually involve a decrease in the blood flow to the skin and the extremities. The principal causes of Cold Stress are exposure to cold temperatures and vibrations, either singly or in combination. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

134 COLD STRESS DISORDERS The four physical disorders that can arise from cold stress, listed in increasing order of se- verity, are as follows: Chilblains: Chilblains usually arise as a result of inadequate clothing during periods of exposure to cold temperatures and high relative humidities. Reddening of the skin accompanied by localized itching and swelling are the principal indications of chilblains. 2. Frostnip: Frostnip, which is similar to frostbite, results from prolonged, unprotected exposures to cold temperatures above 32°F (0°C). Symptoms of frostnip are areas of pain and/or itching, and a distinct whitening of the skin. 3. Frostbite: Frostbite is produced from unprotected exposures to cold temperatures at or below freezing — i.e., ≤ 32°F or 0°C. Frostbite is characterized by the sequential change in skin color from white to gray to black [depending upon the temperature and the length of exposure], a reduction in the sensations of touch ranging from slight to total [again depending upon the temperature and the length of exposure], and numbness. 4. Hypothermia: Hypothermia results from extreme exposures to the factors of cold stress, coupled possibly with dehydration and/or exhaustion. Alcohol and/or drug abuse can also contribute to hypothermia. A person who is experiencing hypothermia will usually show some or all of the following symptoms: chills, euphoria, pain in the extremities, slow and weak pulse, body temperature of less than 95°F (35°C), fatigue, drowsiness, and unconsciousness Diunduh dari: /12/2012

135 AMBIENT CONDITIONS RELATED TO THERMAL STRESS
Dry Bulb Temperature The Dry Bulb Temperature is the most direct measurement of air temperature. By definition, it is to be accomplished by the use of a capillary thermometer that is completely exposed to and/or immersed in the air mass whose temperature is to be measured. This thermometer should be shielded from sources of radiant heat. 2. Air or Wind Speed The Air or Wind Speed is simply the rate at which a mass of air is passing an arbitrary stationary point. The direction of movement is not important since this measure is used principally in a determination of the convective heat transfer to and from the air. It is typically measured by an anemometer. 3. Globe Temperature The Globe Temperature of an air mass arises from the combination of heat input by radiation from the surroundings coupled with the simultaneous heat loss by the convective movement of air around the Globe Temperature measurement device, which is a 6-inch diameter, thin-walled copper, spherical globe, painted matte black with an appropriate temperature sensor at its center Diunduh dari: /12/2012

136 AMBIENT CONDITIONS RELATED TO THERMAL STRESS
Wet Bulb Temperature The Wet Bulb Temperature of an air mass differs from the Dry Bulb Temperature measurement by the fact that the fluid reservoir bulb of the capillary thermometer that is used to make this measurement is encased in a sheath of water moistened cloth. This wet sheath provides cooling to the thermometer bulb by the evaporation of water, in most cases causing the Wet Bulb Temperature to be less than its Dry Bulb Temperature counterpart — the obvious exception to this is the case where the ambient relative humidity is 100%, a condition wherein evaporation, and the resulting evaporative cooling, are effectively eliminated. There are actually two categories of Wet Bulb Temperature. The first is the Natural Wet Bulb Temperature which is obtained simply by encasing a capillary thermometer bulb in a wet cloth and then using this combination to make an air temperature measurement. The other category is described as a Psychrometric Wet Bulb Temperature. Psychrometric Wet Bulb Temperatures are obtained by the use of a sling psychrometer, a tool that is made up of a pair of identical capillary thermometers, one of which is bare while the other is sheathed in a wet cloth. To obtain a reading from a sling psychrometer, this mechanism is whirled through the air, a process that produces a maximized rate of evaporative cooling for the wet bulb. The difference in the temperatures indicated by the two thermometers of a sling psychrometer can then be used to determine the relative humidity of the air mass being measured. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

137 EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE
The Effective Temperature is an index that is used to relate the subjective effect that the thermal environment might be expected to have on the comfort of an individual who is exposed to that environment. It is a combination of the Dry Bulb, the Wet Bulb, and the Globe Temperatures. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index [usually abbreviated, WBGT] is the most widely used algebraic approximation of an “Effective Temperature” currently in use today. It is an Index that can be determined quickly, requiring a minimum of effort and operator skill. As an approximation to an “effective temperature,” the WBGT takes into account virtually all the commonly accepted mechanisms of heat transfer (i.e., radiant, evaporative, etc.). It does not account for the cooling effect of wind speed. Because of its simplicity, WBGT has been adopted by the American Conference of Government Hygienists (ACGIH) as its principal index for use in specifying a heat stress related Threshold Limit Value (TLV). For outdoor use (i.e., in sunshine), the WBGT is computed according to the following algebraic sum: WBGT = 0.7 [NWB] [GT] [DB]. For indoor use, the WBGT is computed according to the following slightly modified alge braic sum: WBGT = 0.7 [NWB] [GT]. where: [NWB] = Natural Wet Bulb Temperature; [GT] = Globe Temperature; [DB] = Dry Bulb Temperature. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

138 CEKAMAN RADIASI Ionizing Radiation
Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from the orbit of an atom, causing the atom to become charged or ionized. Forms of electromagnetic radiation. These differ only in frequency and wave length: Heat waves; Radiowaves; Infrared light; Visible light; Ultraviolet light; X rays; Gamma rays. Longer wave length, lower frequency waves (heat and radio) have less energy than shorter wave length, higher frequency waves (X and gamma rays). Not all electromagnetic (EM) radiation is ionizing. Only the high frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum which includes X rays and gamma rays is ionizing. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

139 CEKAMAN RADIASI Particulate
Specific forms of ionizing radiation: Particulate radiation, consisting of atomic or subatomic particles (electrons, protons, etc.) which carry energy in the form of kinetic energy or mass in motion. Alpha particles and beta particles are considered directly ionizing because they carry a charge and can, therefore, interact directly with atomic electrons through coulombic forces (i.e. like charges repel each other; opposite charges attract each other). The neutron is an indirectly ionizing particle. It is indirectly ionizing because it does not carry an electrical charge. Ionization is caused by charged particles, which are produced during collisions with atomic nuclei. The gamma and X rays, which are electromagnetic, indirectly ionizing radiation. These are indirectly ionizing because they are electrically neutral (as are all electromagnetic radiations) and do not interact with atomic electrons through coulombic forces. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

140 CEKAMAN ELEKTROMAGNETIK
CEKAMAN RADIASI CEKAMAN ELEKTROMAGNETIK Electromagnetic stress is the subtle, or not so subtle, effects of stray or chaotic Electrical and magnetic fields on the human body. It is an important cause of stress today for almost everyone. It is particularly bad for people in certain occupations such as airline personnel and those that work with computers, television sets, for example. Avoiding electromagnetic stress is becoming more and more difficult today. It is especially challenging in cities, where cell phone towers, automobiles, and cell and portable phones are used extensively. Red infrared heat lamps. If possible, have some reddish infrared heat lamps positioned around your home. They will purify certain frequencies of energy in the home. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

141 WASTES / CONCUMPTION.

142 Waste Pollution and waste should not be put into the environment faster than the environment can degrade and recycle them, or render them harmless. In nature, waste material from an organism usually becomes a meal or resource for another organism. For example, birds will use dead branches or leaves to build their nests; microorganisms and worms in the soil turn leaves and dead animals into humus, which in turn becomes food for plants; and the organic matter in water, such as animal waste or decaying leaves, provides food for aquatic microorganisms. Although these natural cycles have evolved over millions of years, man is rapidly upsetting the balance by producing an ever-increasing amount of waste. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

143 CONSUMPTION AND WASTE The enormous amount of energy and resources that society consumes results in so much garbage that the resulting air pollution, water pollution and acid rain have become serious threats to the global environment. Humans have accumulated more waste than they can properly manage, and may soon be drowning it. In modern society 80 percent of all waste comes from agricultural, industrial or mining activities. The remaining 20 percent comes from households. A large part of what we throw away at home (plastics, metals, paper, glass and organic materials) can be recycled. Concerns about the growing quantities of waste have become even more serious due to the fact that more and more materials have short life cycles . This is especially true of the packaging for everyday products. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

144 Life cycles Waste issues can be better understood by examining the life cycle of the materials that compose it, from extraction to final disposal. Materials are transformed into waste as a consequence of various production and consumption processes. Residual by-products from these transformation processes that are discharged directly into air and water are called emissions. Residuals that are further handled before being discharged are referred to as waste. Once generated, waste may be reused, recycled, transferred for treatment (to reduce its toxicity), incinerated (to reduce its volume) or buried in landfills. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

145 SOLUTIONS TO THE WASTE PROBLEM
There are four common principles  for better waste management and several ways to tackle the waste problem: decrease the consumption of energy and raw materials; recycle  waste materials; reuse  products as many times as possible; burn  waste in order to extract and utilise all potential energy and to diminish their size (incineration); bury  waste in landfills (pits and ditches); and compost  organic matter. However, most waste treatment techniques also have some environmental impacts . Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

146 Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012
PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. All wastes materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste management Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

147 WASTE MANAGEMENT CONTINUUM
The Waste Management Continuum has two axes. One is the horizontal stakeholder scale, ranging from municipalities and local governments to the community. The other is the vertical technology scale ranging from high tech/high energy disposal systems to low tech low energy systems. Diunduh dari: ……………… 2/12/2012

148 . WASTE DISPOSAL Historically, efforts in the management of waste have focused primarily on the disposal part of the waste. Whilst there is now a general move towards the recovery of resources from waste, disposal is still the most common form of managing waste. Dumping, landfilling of waste and incineration are some of the most common methods of waste disposal. Recycling is the breaking down of materials from waste streams into raw materials, which are then reprocessed either into the same material (closed loop) or a new product (open loop), generally including waste separation and material reprocessing. There are various materials that are capable of being recycled, and technology is advancing to allow the recycling of more materials. The benefits of recycling do not lie solely in diversion of waste away from disposal but, even more importantly, in the reduction of the amount of virgin resources that need to be harvested and processed for the manufacture of new products. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

149 WASTE PROCESSING Waste processing is the range of activities characterized by the treatment and recovery (use) of materials or energy from waste through thermal, chemical, or biological means. It also covers hazardous waste handling. Generally, there are two main groups of processes to be considered, (1) Biological processes, such as open composting, enclosed composting, anaerobic digestion, and vermiculture, and (2) Thermal processes, such as incineration, and gasification. Examples of reuse in initiatives include: (1) Product reuse - rethreading tires, recovery of demolition materials, reuse of plastic bags, second hand clothing, reconditioning and repair of furniture and appliances; (2) Materials reuse . Liquid-paper board for seedlings planters, bottles, scrap paper for notes/phone messages, mulching; (3) Durable packaging - e.g. milk crates, bread trays, string or calico shopping bags. Some of the positive effects associated with processed waste include, more effective use of resources, employment opportunities in the service and repair industries, support for charity based stores, better protection of products as durable packaging is more robust, and changes in attitudes towards disposable products. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

150 WASTE MINIMIZATION Waste minimization is aimed at reducing the production of waste through education and improved production process rather than aiming to increase technology to improve treatment of waste. The idea of minimization is not centered on technological advances, it can be viewed a method of managing existing resources and technology in order to maximise the efficiency of available resource use. Minimizing waste generation has the potential to reduce costs or increase profits by maximizing the use of resources and by reducing the amount of waste to be disposed of the cost of waste management is also decreased. Waste avoidance for individuals: Buying goods in bulk; reconsidering superfluous purchases; purchasing products in materials/packaging that is readily recycled; use of alternatives, e.g. landscaping that creates mulched gardens in place of lawns; and use of composting and vermiculture practices. Waste minimization in industry: Change in product design to reduce materials consumption; using crates instead of pallets to avoid the need for shrink wrap; incorporate Eco-Design technology into production processes; adoption of Cleaner Production practices that ensure avoidance through efficiency measures; and conduct regular audits and monitoring of waste reduction/resource recovery practices. Waste minimization for Local Government: Encourage community 'avoidance' activities, e.g. promote competitions rewarding initiative in this area of resource recovery; lead by example, e.g. display mulched gardens throughout the municipality; and provide facilities and infrastructure to assist industry, business and the community to undertake resource recovery practices, e.g. kerbside recycling and resource exchange registers, initiate greener procurement programmes. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

151 WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
The waste hierarchy refers to the 3Rs of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability, and are meant to be a hierarchy in order of importance. Upcycling is the process of converting waste materials or useless products into new materials or products of better quality or a higher environmental value. The goal of upcycling is to prevent wasting potentially useful materials by making use of existing ones. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

152 WASTE HIERARCHY The waste hierarchy is a guide when determining the Best Practicable Environmental Option and represents a chain of priority for waste management, extending from the ideal of prevention and reduction to the last resort of disposal. The waste hierachy shows that waste prevention, or minimisation, are the preferred options as they minimise waste generation and ultimately waste disposal.  Recycling and composting are lower in the waste management hierarchy, as these options both require additional energy and resources to reduce waste levels. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012

153 WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT
What do we mean by wastewater? Wastewater can mean different things to different people with a large number of definitions in use. In the broad perspective, wastewater is “a combination of one or more of: Domestic effluent consisting of black-water (excreta, urine and faecal sludge) and greywater (kitchen and bathing wastewater); Water from commercial establishments and institutions, including hospitals; Industrial effluent, stormwater and other urban run-off; Agricultural, horticultural and aquaculture effluent, either dissolved or as suspended matter (adapted from Raschid-Sally and Jayakody, 2008). Wastewater management encompasses a broad range of efforts that promote effective and responsible water use, treatment, and disposal and encourage the protection and restoration of our nation's watersheds. Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012 Diunduh dari:

154 INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.
Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries. Ashok V. Shekdar. Waste Management. Volume 29, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 1438–1448. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

155 SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT.
Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries. Ashok V. Shekdar. Waste Management. Volume 29, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 1438–1448. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

156 RECYCLING OF WASTE PAPERS, PLASTICS AND GLASS..
Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries. Ashok V. Shekdar. Waste Management. Volume 29, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 1438–1448. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

157 TYPICAL SYSTEM FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries. Ashok V. Shekdar. Waste Management. Volume 29, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 1438–1448. Diunduh dari: 4/12/2012

158 It is a clean, reliable, renewable source of energy
ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT AND WASTE TO ENERGY SOLUTIONS. Waste-to-energy, or WTE, refers to any waste treatment technology that creates energy from assorted waste sources. By utilizing the energy stored from these sources, we are creating value from something that would otherwise be discarded or landfilled. Waste-to-energy is a renewable energy because its fuel source, garbage, is sustainable and is not depleted. It is a clean, reliable, renewable source of energy Diunduh dari: /12/2012

159 HUMAN POPULATION

160 Planning for the future
HUMAN POPULATION Planning for the future How Governments and people from every community meet challenges such as limiting population size, protecting the natural environment, change their consumer oriented attitudes, reduce habits that create excessive waste, elevates poverty and creates an effective balance between conservation and development will determine the worlds future. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

161 Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012
THE URBAN CHALLENGE Population increases will continue in urban centers in the near future. The UN has shown that by 2025 there will be 21 "megacities“ most of which will be situated in developing countries. Urban centers are already unable to provide adequate housing, services such as water and drainage systems, growing energy needs, or better opportunities for income generation. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

162 HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Human Population - An Explosive Growth Human Needs - Limited Resources Our Natural Environment Under Attack Roles of Technology and Engineering An Uncertain Future. Diunduh dari: /.../P  ……………… 29/11/2012

163 What’s Behind Population Growth
Three Factors: Fertility Infant Mortality Longevity Industrial Revolution: Growth of Cities and Infrastructure: Water; Energy; Transportation Increased Productivity Nutrition Sanitation Medicine Animal Domestication and Agriculture: Provided for a few to feed many Diunduh dari: /.../P  ……………… 29/11/2012

164 Human population trends are centrally important to environmental science because they help to determine the environmental impact of human activities. Rising populations put increasing demands on natural resources such as land, water, and energy supplies. As human communities use more resources, they generate contaminants, such as air and water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, along with increasing quantities of waste. Population interacts with several other factors to determine a society’s environmental impact. One widely-cited formula is the "I = PAT" equation, proposed by Paul R. Ehrlich and John P. Holdren in Environmental Impact = Population x Affluence (or consumption) x Technology Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

165 DEMOGRAPHY Demography, the science of human population (or more specifically, the study of population structure and processes), draws together research from a number of disciplines, including economics, sociology, geography, public health, and genetics. In addition to the environmental impacts of population growth, population science also considers questions such as: How does population growth or decline influence economic and social well-being? Does population growth enhance or diminish economic growth? What impact does population growth have on poverty? Do specific aspects of population growth, such as age structure or sex imbalance, have bigger impacts on economic development and environmental quality than other aspects? What are the social and economic implications of population redistribution, through, for example, rural to urban or international migration? Diunduh dari: : ……………… ……………… 28/11/2012

166 POPULATION GROWTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
The human societies' impacts on the environment are a function of three major, interconnected elements: population size, affluence or consumption, and technology. An expanded version of the IPAT equation separates technology into two factors: resource-intensity (how many resources are used to produce each unit of consumption) and waste-intensity (how much waste each unit of consumption generates), and also considers the sensitivity of the environment. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

167 SOCIETIES' ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS TAKE TWO MAJOR FORMS.
First, we consume resources such as land, food, water, soils, and services from healthy ecosystems, such as water filtration through wetlands. Over-consumption uses up or severely depletes supplies of non-renewable resources, such as fossil fuels, and depletes renewable resources such as fisheries and forests if we use them up faster than they can replenish themselves. Second, we emit wastes as a product of our consumption activities, including air and water pollutants, toxic materials, greenhouse gases, and excess nutrients. Some wastes, such as untreated sewage and many pollutants, threaten human health. Others disrupt natural ecosystem functions: for example, excess nitrogen in water supplies causes algal blooms that deplete oxygen and kill fish. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

168 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX = HDI
Indeks Pembangunan Manusia (IPM) / Human Development Index (HDI) adalah : Pengukuran perbandingan dari harapan hidup, melek huruf, pendidikan dan standar hidup untuk semua negara seluruh dunia. IPM digunakan untuk mengklasifikasikan apakah sebuah negara adalah negara maju, negara berkembang atau negara terbelakang dan juga untuk mengukur pengaruh dari kebijaksanaan ekonomi terhadap kualitas hidup. IPM mengukur pencapaian rata-rata sebuah negara dalam 3 dimensi dasar pembangunan manusia: Hidup yang sehat dan panjang umur yang diukur dengan harapan hidup saat kelahiran Pengetahuan yang diukur dengan angka tingkat baca tulis pada orang dewasa (bobotnya dua per tiga) dan kombinasi pendidikan dasar , menengah , atas gross enrollment ratio (bobot satu per tiga). Standard kehidupan yang layak diukur dengan logaritma natural dari produk domestik bruto per kapita dalam paritasi daya beli. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

169 IPM MENGGAMBARKAN TIGA INDIKATOR UMUM :
Indeks Harapan Hidup = Indeks Pendidikan = Angka melek huruf dewasa (ALI) = Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) = Indeks PDB = LE: Angka harapan hidup ALR: Angka melek huruf CGER: Combined gross enrollment ratio GDPpc: PDB perkapita berdasarkan PPP dalam USD Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

170 HDI = HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
HDI lebih difokuskan pada indikator pencapaian dari pada indikator masukan (input). HDI mengukur prestasi keseluruhan suatu negara menurut tiga dimensi Pembangunan Manusia, yaitu: Panjangnya usia – diukur berdasarkan angka harapan hidup saat lahir Pengetahuan – diukur berdasarkan angka melek huruf orang dewasa dan gabungan partisipasi sekolah di tingkat dasar, menengah, dan perguruan tinggi (dengan pembobotan yang sama pada kedua indikator) Standar hidup layak – diukur oleh pendapatan riil per kapita. Diunduh dari: : ……………… 28/11/2012

171 HDI dihitung dengan rumus sebagai berikut –
HDI = 1/3 (indeks harapan hidup) + 1/3 (indeks pendidikan) + 1/3 (indeks PDB) Contoh: HDI Indonesia untuk tahun 2007. Angka harapan hidup saat lahir : 70.5 tahun Angka melek huruf orang dewasa: 92 % Angka partisipasi kasar : % PDB per kapita : $3712 (PPP) Langkah I: Indeks harapan hidup = 70.5–25/85–25 = 0.76 Langkah II: Indeks pendidikan = 2/3(0.92) + 1/3(0.682) = 0.83 Langkah III: Indeks PDB = (Log 3712 – log 100)/( log 40,000 – log 100) = 0.60 Langkah IV: HDI = 0.758/ / /3 = 0.73 Diunduh dari: …. 29/11/2012

172 INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY
SOCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY Science/Technical Capacity Rigorous Policy Debate Environmental Regulation and Management Tracking Environmental Conditions Eco-efficiency Public Choice Failures. Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

173 SCIENCE/ TECHNICAL CAPACITY

174 MAKING SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY BUILDING A PRIORITY
PRIORITY AREA ASSESSMENT ON CAPACITY BUILDING IN SCIENCE MAKING SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY BUILDING A PRIORITY Clear national strategies for capacity building are necessary to link science and technology with goals for economic growth and human well-being, to improve science-based decision-making and problem-solving, and to build future workforces capable of capturing the advances of science and technology. Meeting the challenges of the 21st century and responding to the UN Millennium Development Goals will require international approaches to capacity building that reinforce national strategies, engage society (decision-makers as well as the public and private sectors), and build strong regional and international scientific communities working together toward common goals. Ensuring that efforts are on track will require improvements in census-taking, measurement, and assessment. Diunduh dari: International Council for Science ICSU Report of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Capacity Building in Science. ……………… 6/12/2012 MAKING SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY BUILDING A PRIORITY Clear national strategies for capacity building are necessary to link science and technology with goals for economic growth and human well-being, to improve science-based decision-making and problem-solving, and to build future workforces capable of capturing the advances of science and technology. Meeting the challenges of the 21st century and responding to the UN Millennium Development Goals will require international approaches to capacity building that reinforce national strategies, engage society (decision-makers as well as the public and private sectors), and build strong regional and international scientific communities working together toward common goals. Ensuring that efforts are on track will require improvements in census-taking, measurement, and assessment.

175 PRIORITY AREA ASSESSMENT ON CAPACITY BUILDING IN SCIENCE
BUILDING AND STRENGTHENING HUMAN CAPITAL Meeting societal goals for sustainable development will require substantial growth and maturation of human resources, including : Training the next generation of scientists, Building scientifically literate publics, Improving science education at all levels (especially through inquiry-based methods), Assessing the effectiveness of various interventions, Solving problems of mobility and brain drain, and Encouraging the participation of women in science. Diunduh dari: International Council for Science ICSU Report of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Capacity Building in Science. ……………… 6/12/2012

176 COMMUNICATING BETWEEN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY
PRIORITY AREA ASSESSMENT ON CAPACITY BUILDING IN SCIENCE COMMUNICATING BETWEEN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY The rapid advance of science and technology requires a renewed and strengthened relationship between science and society. Improvements in public appreciation of science through formal and informal methods, as well as efforts to engage the public and the media with science, are needed to help ensure that public policy is informed by science . Diunduh dari: International Council for Science ICSU Report of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Capacity Building in Science. ……………… 6/12/2012

177 STRENGTHENING THE LINKS AMONG EDUCATION, RESEARCH, AND SOCIETY
PRIORITY AREA ASSESSMENT ON CAPACITY BUILDING IN SCIENCE STRENGTHENING THE LINKS AMONG EDUCATION, RESEARCH, AND SOCIETY Strengthening the links among education, research, and society is essential for building future scientifically trained workforces, developing effective national systems of innovation, and connecting the benefits of science with the goals of society. A variety of institutions are designed to reinforce the national, regional, and global connections among education, research, and society. These institutions need continuing support to be effective. Universities play an important role in educating future workforces and in nurturing the basic sciences. Increasingly, they are challenged to strike a balance between academic excellence and research competitiveness, and playing a greater role in national innovation systems. The scientific community needs to help improve incentive structures that recruit talented students to universities and into careers in science, as well as working toward increasing access for scientists and universities to educational materials and scientific publications. Diunduh dari: International Council for Science ICSU Report of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Capacity Building in Science. ……………… 6/12/2012

178 RIGOROUS POLICY DEBATE

179 PUBLIC POLICY Public policy is an attempt by a government to address a public issue by instituting laws, regulations, decisions, or actions pertinent to the problem at hand. Numerous issues can be addressed by public policy including crime, education, foreign policy, health, and social welfare. While public policies are most common in the United States, several other countries, such as those in the United Kingdom, implement them as well. The process to create a new public policy typically follows three steps: agenda-setting, option-formulation, and implementation; the time-line for a new policy to be put in place can range from weeks to several years, depending on the situation. Public policies can also be made by leaders of religious and cultural institutions for the benefit of the congregation and participants, and the term can also refer to a type of academic study that covers topics such as sociology, economics, and policy analysis. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

180 POLICY DEBATE Policy debate is a form of speech competition in which teams of two advocate for and against a resolution that typically calls for policy change by the United States federal government. It is also referred to as cross-examination debate (sometimes shortened to Cross-X, CX, or C-X) because of the 3-minute questioning period following each constructive speech. Affirmative teams generally present a plan as a proposal for implementation of the resolution. The negative will generally prove that it would be better not to do the plan or that the opportunity costs to the plan are so great that it should not be implemented. Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012

181 . EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY
. Evidence-based policy is public policy informed by rigorously established objective evidence. It is an extension of the idea of evidence-based medicine to all areas of public policy. An important aspect of evidence-based policy is the use of scientifically rigorous studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify programs and practices capable of improving policy relevant outcomes. However, some areas of knowledge are not well serviced by quantitative research, leading to debate about the methods and instruments that are considered critical for the collection of relevant evidence. Good data, analytical skills and political support, as such, are seen as the important elements. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

182 OF EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY
THE METHODOLOGY OF EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY There are many methodologies for evidence-based policy but they all share the following characteristics: It tests a theory as to why the policy will be effective and what the impacts of the policy will be if it is successful Inclusion of a counterfactual: what would have occurred if the policy had not been implemented They incorporate some measurement of the impact Examines both direct and indirect effects that occur because of the policy Separates the uncertainties and controls for other influences outside of the policy that may have an effect on the outcome Should be able to be tested and replicated by a third party The form of methodology used with evidence-based policy fit under the category of a cost-benefit framework and are created to estimate a net payoff is the policy was to be implemented. Because there is a difficulty in quantifying some effects and outcomes of the policy, it is mostly focused broadly on whether or not benefits will outweigh costs, instead of using specific values. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

183 THE PROCESS OF EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY
When new public policies are created, there are generally three key things involved in the process: the problem, the player, and the policy. The problem is the issue that needs to be addressed, the player is the individual or group that is influential in forming a plan to address the problem in question, and the policy is the finalized course of action decided upon by the government. Typically the general public will make the government aware of an issue through writing letters and s, or making phone calls, to local government leaders; the issue is then brought forward during government meetings and the process for creating new public policies begins. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

184 Tahap-tahap pembuatan kebijakan publik menurut William Dunn
1. Penyusunan Agenda 2.Formulasi kebijakan 3. Adopsi/ Legitimasi Kebijakan 4. Penilaian/ Evaluasi Kebijakan 1. Penyusunan Agenda Agenda setting adalah sebuah fase dan proses yang sangat strategis dalam realitas kebijakan publik. Dalam proses inilah memiliki ruang untuk memaknai apa yang disebut sebagai masalah publik dan prioritas dalam agenda publik dipertarungkan. Jika sebuah isu berhasil mendapatkan status sebagai masalah publik, dan mendapatkan prioritas dalam agenda publik, maka isu tersebut berhak mendapatkan alokasi sumber daya publik yang lebih daripada isu lain. Ada beberapa Kriteria isu yang bisa dijadikan agenda kebijakan publik (Kimber, 1974; Salesbury 1976; Sandbach, 1980; Hogwood dan Gunn, 1986) a.l. Telah mencapai titik kritis tertentu à jika diabaikan, akan menjadi ancaman yang serius; Telah mencapai tingkat partikularitas tertentu à berdampak dramatis; Menyangkut emosi tertentu dari sudut kepent. orang banyak (umat manusia) dan mendapat dukungan media massa; Menjangkau dampak yang amat luas ; Mempermasalahkan kekuasaan dan keabsahan dalam masyarakat ; Menyangkut suatu persoalan yang fasionable (sulit dijelaskan, tetapi mudah dirasakan kehadirannya) Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012

185 TAHAP-TAHAP PEMBUATAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK
2. Formulasi kebijakan Masalah yang sudah masuk dalam agenda kebijakan kemudian dibahas oleh para pembuat kebijakan. Masalah-masalah tadi didefinisikan untuk kemudian dicari pemecahan masalah yang terbaik. Pemecahan masalah tersebut berasal dari berbagai alternatif atau pilihan kebijakan yang ada. Sama halnya dengan perjuangan suatu masalah untuk masuk dalam agenda kebijakan, dalam tahap perumusan kebijakan masing-masing slternatif bersaing untuk dapat dipilih sebagai kebijakan yang diambil untuk memecahkan masalah.[3] 3. Adopsi/ Legitimasi Kebijakan Tujuan legitimasi adalah untuk memberikan otorisasi pada proses dasar pemerintahan.[4] Jika tindakan legitimasi dalam suatu masyarakat diatur oleh kedaulatan rakyat, warga negara akan mengikuti arahan pemerintah.[5]Namun warga negara harus percaya bahwa tindakan pemerintah yang sah.Mendukung. Dukungan untuk rezim cenderung berdifusi - cadangan dari sikap baik dan niat baik terhadap tindakan pemerintah yang membantu anggota mentolerir pemerintahan disonansi.Legitimasi dapat dikelola melalui manipulasi simbol-simbol tertentu. Di mana melalui proses ini orang belajar untuk mendukung pemerintah.[6] 4. Penilaian/ Evaluasi Kebijakan Secara umum evaluasi kebijakan dapat dikatakan sebagai kegiatan yang menyangkut estimasi atau penilaian kebijakan yang mencakup substansi, implementasi dan dampak.[7] Dalam hal ini , evaluasi dipandang sebagai suatu kegiatan fungsional. Artinya, evaluasi kebijakan tidak hanya dilakukan pada tahap akhir saja, melainkan dilakukan dalam seluruh proses kebijakan. Dengan demikian, evaluasi kebijakan bisa meliputi tahap perumusan masalh-masalah kebijakan, program-program yang diusulkan untuk menyelesaikan masalah kebijakan, implementasi, maupun tahap dampak kebijakan. [8] Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012

186 MODEL PERUMUSAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK
Ada tiga model yang Dapat digunakan dlaam merumuskan kebijakan publik, yaitu: Model Pengamatan Terpadu; Model Demokratis; Model Strategis Terdapat 3 (tiga) rangkaian kesatuan penting didalam analisis kebijakan publik yang perlu dipahami, yaitu : Formulasi kebijakan (policy formulation), Implementasi kebijakan (policy implementation) dan Evaluasi kebijakan (policy evaluation). Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012

187 Environmental Regulation
and Management

188 REGULASI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Regulation is the promulgation, monitoring and enforcement of rules. Regulation creates, limits, or constrains a right, creates or limits a duty, or allocates a responsibility. Regulation can take many forms: legal restrictions promulgated by a government authority, contractual obligations that bind many parties (for example, "insurance regulations" that arise out of contracts between insurers and their insureds), self-regulation by an industry such as through a trade association, social regulation (e.g. norms), co-regulation, third-party regulation, certification, accreditation or market regulation. In its legal sense regulation can and should be distinguished from primary legislation (by Parliament of elected legislative body) on the one hand and judge-made law on the other. Diunduh dari: ……………… 3/12/2012

189 Reasons for regulation
REGULASI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Reasons for regulation Regulations can be justified for a variety of reasons, including: Market failures - regulation due to inefficiency. Intervention due to a classical economics argument to market failure. Risk of monopoly Collective action, or public good Inadequate information Unseen externalities Collective desires - regulation about collective desires or considered judgments on the part of a significant segment of society Diverse experiences - regulation with a view of eliminating or enhancing opportunities for the formation of diverse preferences and beliefs Social subordination - regulation aimed to increase or reduce social subordination of various social groups Endogenous preferences - regulation's purpose is to affect the development of certain preferences on an aggregate level Irreversibility - regulation that deals with the problem of irreversibility – the problem in which a certain type of conduct from current generations results in outcomes from which future generations may not recover from at all. Interest group transfers - regulation that results from efforts by self-interest groups to redistribute wealth in their favor, which may be disguised as one or more of the justifications above. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

190 REGULASI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seek to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. Some environmental laws regulate the quantity and nature of impacts of human activities: for example, setting allowable levels of pollution or requiring permits for potentially harmful activities. Other environmental laws are preventive in nature and seek to assess the possible impacts before the human activities can occur. Diunduh dari: Version/Part_2/Activities/Interest_Groups/Decision-Making/……………… 3/12/2012

191 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Environmental resource management is “a purposeful activity with the goal to maintain and improve the state of an environmental resource affected by human activities”. It is not, as the phrase suggests, the management of the environment as such, but rather the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. Environmental resources management aims to ensure that ecosystem services are protected and maintained for equitable use by future human generations, and also, maintain ecosystem integrity as an end in itself by taking into consideration ethical, economic, and scientific (ecological) variables. Environmental resource management tries to identify the factors that have a stake in the conflicts that may rise between meeting the needs and protecting the resources. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

192 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Environmental resource management involves the management of all components of the biophysical environment, both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic). This is due to the interconnected and network of relationships amongst all living species and their habitats. The environment also involves the relationships of the human environment, such as the social, cultural and economic environment with the biophysical environment. The essential aspects of environmental resource management are ethical, economical, social and technological which provide for formulation of principles and help in making decisions. The scientific and technical nature makes environmental resource management profession to operate in a humanistic and rational mode in the world Diunduh dari: /12/2012

193 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Aspek Ekonomi The economy functions within, and is dependent upon goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. The role of the environment is recognized in both classical economics and neoclassical economics theories. Economic models influence environmental resource management in that management policies reflect beliefs about natural capital scarcity – if natural capital is believed to be infinite and easily substituted, environmental management would be irrelevant to the economy. For example, economic paradigms based on neoclassical models of closed economic systems are primarily concerned with resource scarcity, and thus prescribe legalizing the environment as an economic externality for an environmental resource management strategy. Diunduh dari: ……………… 3/12/2012

194 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
ASPEK EKOLOGI Scientific analysis of the environment deals with several dimensions of ecological uncertainty. These include: structural uncertainty resulting from the misidentification, or lack of information pertaining to the relationships between ecological variables; parameter uncertainty referring to “uncertainty associated with parameter values that are not known precisely but can be assessed and reported in terms of the likelihood…of experiencing a defined range of outcomes” ; and stochastic uncertainty stemming from chance or unrelated factors. Adaptive management is considered a useful framework through which to deal with situations of high levels of uncertainty though it is not without its detractors. A common scientific concept and impetus behind environmental resource management is carrying capacity. Simply put, carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of organisms a particular resource can sustain. The concept of carrying capacity, whilst understood by many cultures over history, has its roots in Malthusian theory. Diunduh dari: ……………… 3/12/2012

195 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
ASPEK SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability and environmental resource management involves managing economic, social, and ecological systems within and external to an organizational entity in order for it to sustain itself and the system it exists within. In context, sustainability implies that rather than competing for endless growth on a finite planet, development will improve quality of life without necessarily having to consume more resources. In order to sustainably manage the state of environmental resources affected by human activities organizational change is needed to instill sustainability values within an organization, in order to portray these values outwardly from all levels and to reinforce them in its surrounding stakeholder community. The end result should be a symbiotic relationship between the sustaining organization and community, along with the environment. Diunduh dari: ……………… 3/12/2012

196 What Is Environmental Management?
MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP What Is Environmental Management? Environmental management is the process by which environmental health is regulated. It does not involve managing the environment itself, but it is the process of taking steps and behaviors to have a positive effect on the environment. Environmental management involves the wise use of activity and resources to have an impact on the world. Many organizations develop a management plan or system to implement, manage and maintain environmental goals. Management plans for the environment are constructed by many companies and organizations, as taking care of the planet is the responsibility of everybody in every type of profession. Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012

197 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Environmental management does not come without costs. These include the investment of resources such as time and money, the cost of training the employees, the cost of hiring consultants or other professionals and the cost of technical resources for studying the environment and its impacts. It is widely believed, however, that the benefits of an environmental management plan far outweigh the costs. These include the prevention of pollution and the conservation of natural resources, increased energy efficiency, stronger environmental performance and an attention to and responsibility for taking care of the earth. Following a management plan for the environment is a great way to build strong employee relationships and foster company support around one goal. Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012

198 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
Environmental monitoring can refer to a few different things. Conducting environmental research and collecting data in order to draw conclusions is one example. Monitoring protected properties to ensure that development or illegal land uses are not taking place is another. Performing environmental monitoring to assess the current state of a certain area in order to determine what impacts certain actions might have is also a common example. Under certain laws, it may also be necessary to test the amount of pollutants or chemicals from pesticides or manufacturing processes in the air, soil, or water. Environmental monitoring can takes place to ensure that national or international laws regarding pollutants are being followed. For instance, air quality monitoring might take place to measure the amount of carbon dioxide that a certain manufacturer or power plant emits into the air. Water and soil quality monitoring also check for pollutants such as pesticides or other chemicals. Once these tests are completed, action can be taken to ideally reduce the amount of pollutants by changing certain practices, or determining what can be done to "clean up" certain areas. This type of environmental monitoring is very important for the development and later enforcement of environmental laws and policies. Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012

199 Environmental Conditions

200 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION
Environmental condition - the state of the environment condition: STATUS - a state at a particular time; "a condition (or state) of disrepair"; "the current status of the arms negotiations" POLLUTION- undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities EROSION - condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind DEFORESTATION - the state of being clear of trees DEPOPULATION - the condition of having reduced numbers of inhabitants (or no inhabitants at all) CLIMATE, CLIME - the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time; "the dank climate of southern Wales"; "plants from a cold clime travel best in winter" GLACIATION - the condition of being covered with glaciers or masses of ice; the result of glacial action; "Agassiz recognized marks of glaciation all over northern Europe" INHOSPITABLENESS - the environmental condition in a region that lacks a favorable climate or terrain for life or growth METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS - the prevailing environmental conditions as they influence the prediction of weather Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

201 Diunduh dari: http://envis.nic.in/soer.asp ……………… 28/11/2012
ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS Status of Environment (SoE) provides an analysis of the available information. It aims to provide details on the current status of the main environmental issues in the different REGION / AREA / LOCATION. It covers a wide range of environment related issues starting from human settlement, atmosphere, land, water, biodiversity to ecological sustainable development etc. It provides information on the various human activities that exert pressure on different environmental components. Impact of demographic shifts, urban sprawls, growth of the poor, changes in trends of industrial, commercial, and transport character, urban economic activities, etc. on air, water, land, biological environments, environmental health etc. are studied and analyzed. The SoE also analyzes responses of the society, examines policies and strategies initiated under regulatory mechanisms along with their impacts. Besides, it identifies the information gaps, and highlights the main policy issues for decision-makers Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

202 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Environmental pollution is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life. Pollutants may cause primary damage, with direct identifiable impact on the environment, or secondary damage in the form of minor perturbations in the delicate balance of the biological food web that are detectable only over long time periods. Water Pollution Thermal Pollution Land Pollution Pestiside Pollution Radiation Pollution Noise Pollution Air Pollution   Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

203 Diunduh dari: http://www.soilerosion.net/ ……………… 28/11/2012
SOIL EROSION What is soil erosion? Soil is naturally removed by the action of water or wind: such 'background' (or 'geological') soil erosion has been occurring for some 450 million years, since the first land plants formed the first soil. Even before this, natural processes moved loose rock, or regolith, off the Earth's surface, just as has happened on the planet Mars. In general, background erosion removes soil at roughly the same rate as soil is formed. But 'accelerated' soil erosion — loss of soil at a much faster rate than it is formed — is a far more recent problem. It is always a result of mankind's unwise actions, such as overgrazing or unsuitable cultivation practices. These leave the land unprotected and vulnerable. Then, during times of erosive rainfall or windstorms, soil may be detached, transported, and (possibly travelling a long distance) deposited. Accelerated soil erosion by water or wind may affect both agricultural areas and the natural environment, and is one of the most widespread of today's environmental problems. It has impacts which are both on-site (at the place where the soil is detached) and off-site (wherever the eroded soil ends up). More recently still, the use of powerful agricultural implements has, in some parts of the world, led to damaging amounts of soil moving downslope merely under the action of gravity: this is so-called tillage erosion.  Soil erosion is just one form of soil degradation. Other kinds of soil degradation include salinisation, nutrient loss, and compaction. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

204 DEFORESTATION Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

205 DEPOPULATION Population decline can refer to the decline in population of any organism, but this article refers to population decline in humans. It is a term usually used to describe any great reduction in a human population. It can be used to refer to long-term demographic trends, as in urban decay or rural flight, but it is also commonly employed to describe large reductions in population due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes. Depopulation, population decline is the reduction over time in a region's population. The decline can be caused by several factors including sub-replacement fertility (along with limited immigration), heavy emigration, disease, famine, and war. A long-term population decline is typically caused by sub-replacement fertility, coupled with a net immigration rate that fails to compensate the excess of deaths over births. A long-term decline is accompanied by population aging and creates an increase in the ratio of retirees to workers and children. When a sub-replacement fertility rate remains constant, population decline accelerates over time. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

206 Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate ……………… 28/11/2012
CLIMATE Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature , humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods. Climate can be contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of these elements and their variations over shorter periods. A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surface, and biosphere. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

207 INHOSPITABLENESS Inhospitableness - the environmental condition in a region that lacks a favorable climate or terrain for life or growth. Hos·pi·ta·ble Receiving or treating guests or strangers warmly and generously: a hospitable family. Characterized by or betokening warmth and generosity toward guests or strangers: a hospitable smile. Favorably receptive or open (usually followed by to  ): to be hospitable to new ideas; a climate hospitable to the raising of corn. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

208 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS
Meteorological conditions - the prevailing environmental conditions as they influence the prediction of weather. Meteorological element Any one of the properties or conditions of the atmosphere which together specify the weather at a given place for any particular time (for example, air temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, thunderstorm and fog). Weather The state of the atmosphere, mainly with respect to its effects upon life and human activities. As distinguished from climate, weather consists of the short-term (minutes to about 15 days) variations of the atmosphere state. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

209 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
Country Environmental Analysis mengukur biaya ekonomi atas degradasi lingkungan dan menawarkan pilihan mengenai cara terbaik untuk mengatasi masalah prioritas tata kelola lingkungan dan adaptasi perubahan iklim. Berdasarkan analisis biaya degradasi lingkungan terhadap perekonomian Indonesia : Modal alam yang mencapai sekitar seperempat total kekayaan Indonesia tetapi menyusut cepat dan tidak diimbangi dengan investasi yang mencukupi dalam modal sumber daya manusia atau yang dihasilkannya. Perubahan iklim akan menciptakan sejumlah dampak negatif di Indonesia, termasuk penurunan produksi panen, risiko banjir yang lebih besar, serta penyebaran penyakit bawaan vektor yang lebih luas, dengan proyeksi biaya ekonomi mencapai 2,5-7,0 persen PDB di tahun 2100. Sanitasi yang buruk diperkirakan telah menimbulkan biaya kesehatan, air, pariwisata yang besar dan biaya kesejahteraan lain senilai lebih dari $6 miliar di tahun 2005, atau lebih dari 2 persen PDB tahun itu. Polusi udara di luar dan dalam ruangan diperkirakan menimbulkan dampak kesehatan sekitar $5.5 miliar per tahun atau sekitar 1,3 persen PDB (2007). Penggundulan hutan sejak 2001 telah mencapai lebih dari 1 juta hektare per tahun.  Tingkat ini telah mengalami penurunan dari 2,5 juta hektare per tahun, tetapi masih sangat tinggi dibandingkan dengan negara berhutan tropis lain.  Penggundulan hutan dan konversi lahan gambut menyebabkan degradasi lingkungan, kerugian kesehatan dan keanekaragaman hayati, serta emisi gas rumah kaca. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

210 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Reaktif/Responsif Proaktif/Antisipatif Sumber Daya Air Perlindungan terhadap sumber daya air tanah Peningkatan pengelolaan dan pemeliharaan sistem pasokan air yang ada Perlindungan terhadap daerah tangkapan air Peningkatan pasokan air Pengumpulan dan desalinasi air tanah dan air hujan Penggunaan air daur ulang yang lebih baik Konservasi daerah tangkapan air Peningkatan sistem pengelolaan air Reformasi kebijakan mengenai air termasuk kebijakan irigasi dan penetapan harga Pengembangan pengendalian banjir dan pengawasan kekeringan Diunduh dari: /12/2012

211 Pertanian ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Pertanian Reaktif /Responsif: Pengendalian erosi Pembangunan bendungan untuk irigasi Perubahan dalam penggunaan dan aplikasi pupuk Pengenalan panenan baru Pemeliharaan kesuburan tanah Perubahan dalam waktu tanam dan panen Pergantian ke tanaman pangan yang berbeda Program pendidikan dan penjangkauan mengenai konservasi dan pengelolaan tanah dan air Proaktif/ Antisipatif Pengembangan panenan berdaya tahan (terhadap kekeringan, garam, serangga/hama) Penelitian dan pengembangan Pengelolaan tanah dan air Diversifikasi dan intensifikasi pangan dan tanaman pangan Tindakan kebijakan, insentif pajak/subsidi, pasar bebas Pengembangan sistem peringatan dini Diunduh dari: /12/2012

212 Ke-hutanan ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Ke-hutanan Reaktif/Responsif Peningkatan sistem pengelolaan termasuk pengendalian penggundulan hutan, reboisasi, dan konversi tanah menjadi hutan Promosi pertanian kehutanan untuk meningkatkan barang dan jasa kehutanan Pengembangan/peningkatan rencana pengelolaan kebakaran hutan nasional Peningkatan penyimpanan karbon di hutan Proaktif/ Antisipatif Penciptaan taman/cagar alam, lindungan dan koridor keanekaragaman hayati Identifikasi/pengembangan spesies yang tahan terhadap perubahan iklim Penilaian kerentanan ekosistem yang lebih baik Pengawasan spesies Pengembangan dan pemeliharaan bank benih Sistem peringatan dini kebakaran hutan Diunduh dari: /12/2012

213 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Pantai/Laut Reaktif/ Responsif Perlindungan terhadap infrastruktur ekonomi Kesadaran masyarakat untuk meningkatkan perlindungan terhadap ekosistem pantai dan laut Pembangunan tembok laut dan penguatan pantai Perlindungan dan konservasi terumbu karang, hutan bakau, rumput laut, dan tanaman pantai Proaktif/ Antisipatif Pengelolaan zona pantai terintegrasi Perencanaan dan pembagian daerah pantai yang lebih baik Pengembangan peraturan atas perlindungan pantai Penelitian dan pengembangan ekosistem pantai Diunduh dari: /12/2012

214 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Kesehatan Reaktif/Responsif Reformasi pengelolaan kesehatan masyarakat Peningkatan kondisi perumbahan dan kehidupan Peningkatan tanggapan darurat Proaktif/ Antisipatif Pengembangan sistem peringatan dini Pengamatan dan pengawasan yang lebih baik terhadap penyakit/vektor Peningkatan kualitas lingkungan Perubahan dalam rancangan perkotaan dan perumahan Diunduh dari: /12/2012

215 ECO-EFFICIENCY

216 ECO-EFFICIENCY The term eco-efficiency was coined by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in its 1992 publication "Changing Course". It is based on the concept of creating more goods and services while using fewer resources and creating less waste and pollution. According to the WBCSD definition, eco-efficiency is achieved through the delivery of "competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life while progressively reducing environmental impacts of goods and resource intensity throughout the entire life-cycle to a level at least in line with the Earth's estimated carrying capacity.“ Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

217 According to the WBCSD, critical aspects of eco-efficiency are:
This EE-concept describes a vision for the production of economically valuable goods and services while reducing the ecological impacts of production. In other words eco-efficiency means producing more with less. According to the WBCSD, critical aspects of eco-efficiency are: A reduction in the material intensity of goods or services; A reduction in the energy intensity of goods or services; Reduced dispersion of toxic materials; Improved recyclability; Maximum use of renewable resources; Greater durability of products; Increased service intensity of goods and services. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

218 ECO-EFFICIENCY According to Boulanger (Boulanger, P.M “Three strategies for sustainable consumption”. S.A.P.I.EN.S. 3 (2), all versions of eco-efficiency share four key characteristics: Confidence in technological innovation as the main solution to un-sustainability; Reliance on business as the principal actor of transformation. The emphasis is on firms designing new products, shifting to new production processes, and investing in R&D, etc., more than on the retailer or the consumer, let alone the citizen. Trust in markets (if they are functioning well); “Growthphilia”: there is nothing wrong with growth as such. Moreover, with “cradle-to-cradle”, growth is conducive to sustainability per se. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

219 RESOURCE INTENSITY Resource intensity is a measure of the resources (e.g. water, energy, materials) needed for the production, processing and disposal of a unit of good or service, or for the completion of a process or activity; it is therefore a measure of the efficiency of resource use. It is often expressed as the quantity of resource embodied in unit cost e.g. litres of water per $1 spent on product. In national economic and sustainability accounting it can be calculated as units of resource expended per unit of GDP. When applied to a single person it is expressed as the resource use of that person per unit of consumption. Relatively high resource intensities indicate a high price or environmental cost of converting resource into GDP; low resource intensity indicates a lower price or environmental cost of converting resource into GDP. Lorentzen, J. (ed) Resource intensity, knowledge and development: insights from Africa and South America. HSRC Press, South Africa. ISBN ISBN Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

220 RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY
Resource productivity and resource intensity are key concepts used in sustainability measurement as they measure attempts to decouple the connection between resource use and environmental degradation. Resource productivity is the quantity of good or service (outcome) that is obtained through the expenditure of unit resource. This can be expressed in monetary terms as the monetary yield per unit resource. For example, when applied to crop irrigation it is the yield of crop obtained through use of a given volume of irrigation water, the “crop per drop”, which could also be expressed as monetary return from product per use of unit irrigation water. Their strength is that they can be used as a metric for both economic and environmental cost. Although these concepts are two sides of the same coin, in practice they involve very different approaches and can be viewed as reflecting, on the one hand, the efficiency of resource production as outcome per unit of resource use (resource productivity) and, on the other hand, the efficiency of resource consumption as resource use per unit outcome (resource intensity). The sustainability objective is to maximize resource productivity while minimizing resource intensity. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

221 SUSTAINABILITY Resource productivity and resource intensity are key concepts used in sustainability measurement as they attempt to decouple the direct connection between resource use and environmental degradation. Their strength is that they can be used as a metric for both economic and environmental cost. Although these concepts are two sides of the same coin, in practice they involve very different approaches and can be viewed as reflecting, on the one hand, the efficiency of resource production as outcome per unit of resource use (resource productivity) and, on the other hand, the efficiency of resource consumption as resource use per unit outcome (resource intensity). The sustainability objective is to maximize resource productivity while minimizing resource intensity. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

222 Sustainable value is calculated in five steps:
Sustainable value is based on the notion of opportunity costs. Opportunity costs are used in financial markets to calculate the cost of capital. In financial markets, the cost of using $ 100 over the course of one year is determined by the return that could have been generated through an alternative investment of the capital. Sustainable Value is the first concept to extend this logic to environmental and social resources. Sustainable value is calculated in five steps: Calculate the environmental, social and economic efficiencies of the entity using the resources. Efficiency is calculated by relating the return to resource use. Calculate the environmental, social and economic efficiencies of the benchmark (= calculate opportunity costs). Calculate the value spreads by subtracting the efficiency of the benchmark (Step 2) from the efficiency of the entity (Step 1). Calculate the value contributions by multiplying the amount of environmental, social and economic resources used with the corresponding value spread (Step 3), respectively. Calculate sustainable value by adding up the value contributions (Step 4) and dividing by the number of resources considered. This avoids double counting. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

223 OPPORTUNITY COST Opportunity cost is the cost of any activity measured in terms of the value of the next best alternative forgone (that is not chosen). It is the sacrifice related to the second best choice available to someone, or group, who has picked among several mutually exclusive choices. The opportunity cost is also the "cost" (as a lost benefit) of the forgone products after making a choice. Opportunity cost is a key concept in economics, and has been described as expressing "the basic relationship between scarcity and choice". The notion of opportunity cost plays a crucial part in ensuring that scarce resources are used efficiently. Thus, opportunity costs are not restricted to monetary or financial costs: the real cost of output forgone, lost time, pleasure or any other benefit that provides utility should also be considered opportunity costs. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

224 Public Choice Failures

225 Public choice theory is the use of modern economic tools to study problems that traditionally are in the province of political science. From the perspective of political science, it is the subset of positive political theory that models voters, politicians, and bureaucrats as mainly self-interested. In particular, it studies such agents and their interactions in the social system either as such or under alternative constitutional rules. These can be represented in a number of ways, including standard constrained utility maximization, game theory, or decision theory. Public choice analysis has roots in positive analysis ("what is") but is often used for normative purposes ("what ought to be"), to identify a problem or suggest how a system could be improved by changes in constitutional rules, the subject of constitutional economics. Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012

226 Diunduh dari: frank.mtsu.edu/~dgraddy/.../343lec5.ppt……………… 5/12/2012
Public choice theory is a positive approach to explaining government activities. It is based on self-interest motives by the public and the bureaucracies. Essentially the difference between political and economic behavior is not a difference in human motives, but a difference in the rules and institutions governing human interaction in the two spheres. Mueller definition of public choice: “Public choice can be defined as the economic study of nonmarket decision- making, or simply the application of economics to political science. The subject matter of public choice is the theory of the state voting rules voter behavior party politics bureaucracy. The methodology of public choice is that of economics; i.e., individuals are rational utility maximizers.” Diunduh dari: frank.mtsu.edu/~dgraddy/.../343lec5.ppt……………… 5/12/2012

227 Public Choice and Government Failure
• Public choice theory applies economic principles to public sector decision making. • Government failure – occurs when government action results in a less efficient allocation of resources. • The primary motivation in the public sector is assumed to be self-interest. Voters • Voters cannot vote for the exact political policies that they favor. • People are likely to be more satisfied with the choices they can make as consumers than with the choices they can make as voters. Rational Ignorance • It is rational to remain ignorant if the cost of gaining information is greater than the benefit of having the information. • Most voters will not be well-informed due to rational voter ignorance. Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012

228 HUMAN VULNERABILITY Basic Sustenance Public Health
Environmental Disasters Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

229 Basic Sustenance

230 HUMAN NEEDS Human needs can be understood as a system - i.e. they are interrelated and interactive. In this system, there is no hierarchy of needs (apart from the basic need for subsistence or survival) as postulated by Western psychologists such as Maslow, rather, simultaneity, complementarity and trade-offs are features of the process of needs satisfaction. Manfred Max-Neef and his colleagues developed a taxonomy of human needs and a process by which communities can identify their "wealths" and "poverties" according to how their fundamental human needs are satisfied. Max-Neef classifies the fundamental human needs as: subsistence, protection, affection, understanding, participation, leisure, creation, identity and freedom. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

231 Needs are also defined according to the existential categories of being, having, doing and interacting, and from these dimensions, a 36 cell matrix is developed Need Being (qualities) Having (things) Doing (actions) Interacting (settings) subsistence physical and mental health food, shelter, work feed, clothe, rest, work living environment, social setting protection care, adaptability, autonomy social security, health systems, work co-operate, plan, take care of, help social environment, dwelling affection respect, sense of humour, generosity, sensuality friendships, family, relationships with nature share, take care of, make love, express emotions privacy, intimate spaces of togetherness understanding critical capacity, curiosity, intuition literature, teachers, policies, educational analyse, study, meditate, investigate, schools, families, universities, communities, participation receptiveness, dedication, sense of humour responsibilities, duties, work, rights cooperate, dissent, express opinions associations, parties, churches, neighbourhoods leisure imagination, tranquility, spontaneity games, parties, peace of mind day-dream, remember, relax, have fun landscapes, intimate spaces, places to be alone creation imagination, boldness, inventiveness, curiosity abilities, skills, work, techniques invent, build, design, work, compose, interpret spaces for expression, workshops, audiences identity sense of belonging, self-esteem, consistency language, religions, work, customs, values, norms get to know oneself, grow, commit oneself places one belongs to, everyday settings freedom autonomy, passion, self-esteem, open-mindedness equal rights dissent, choose, run risks, develop awareness anywhere Diunduh dari: /12/2012

232 The third, he said, is a sense of belonging, of connection to others.
. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a landmark theory in psychology. Picture a pyramid, with the most basic and important needs at the base and the pinnacle of human experience at the top. At ground level, Maslow identified sustenance and safety as the two primary human needs. The third, he said, is a sense of belonging, of connection to others. Diunduh dari: zippycart.com……………… 5/12/2012

233 . Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
: . Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Philosophers and psychologists have theorised throughout the ages on what defines the basic human needs.  Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs are represented by the following diagram: Diunduh dari: /12/2012

234 PUBLIC HEALTH

235 Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" (1920, C.E.A. Winslow. Science 51 (1306): 23–33). It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). The dimensions of health can encompass "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity", as defined by the United Nations' World Health Organization. Public health incorporates the interdisciplinary approaches of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services. Environmental health, community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, insurance medicine and occupational health (respectively occupational medicine) are other important subfields. Diunduh dari: /11/2012

236 PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION
The focus of public health intervention is to improve health and quality of life through the prevention and treatment of disease and other physical and mental health conditions, through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors. Promotion of hand washing and breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, and distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases are examples of common public health measures. Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

237 PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAM The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies core functions of public health programs including: Providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed; Shaping a research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and dissemination of valuable knowledge; Setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation; Articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options; Monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends. In particular, public health surveillance programs can: Serve as an early warning system for impending public health emergencies; Document the impact of an intervention, or track progress towards specified goals; and Monitor and clarify the epidemiology of health problems, allow priorities to be set, and inform health policy and strategies. Diagnose, investigate, and monitor health problems and health hazards of the community Diunduh dari: /11/2012

238 The 10 Essential Elements of Public Health
Public Health has identified the following 10 essential elements that define public health practice: Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility and quality of personal and population based services Assure a competent workforce for public health and personal health care Link People to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety* Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community Monitor health status to identify community health problems Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

239 EIGHT ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC HEALTH CONSULTATION
Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012

240 DEFINITION OF PUBLIC HEALTH
The definition offered by the Acheson Report (Acheson 1988) has been widely accepted: Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, pro- longing life, and promoting health through the organized efforts of society. In 2003, Detels defined the goal of public health as: The biologic, physical, and mental well-being of all members of society regardless of gender, wealth, ethnicity, sexual orientation, country, or political views. Diunduh dari: khotanpublishing.org/.../1e9623c98b49412.p... ……………… 6/12/2012

241 FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Prevent disease and injuries. Promote healthy lifestyles and good health habits. Identify, measure, monitor, and anticipate community health needs. Formulate, promote, and enforce essential health policies. Organize and ensure high-quality, cost-effective public health and health-care services. Reduce health disparities and ensure access to health care for all. Promote and protect a healthy environment. Disseminate health information and mobilize communities to take appropriate action. Plan and prepare for natural and man-made disasters. Reduce interpersonal violence and aggressive war. Conduct research and evaluate health-promoting/disease-preventing strategies. Develop new methodologies for research and evaluation. Train and ensure a competent public health workforce. Diunduh dari: khotanpublishing.org/.../1e9623c98b49412.p...  ……………… 6/12/2012

242 TEN ESSENTIAL PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES
Develop policies, and plans that support individual and community health efforts Diagnose & Investigate the health problems & Health hazards in the community Mobilize community partnerships Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues Link people to needed personnel health services and assure the provision of comprehensive health care when otherwise unavailable Assure a competent public health & personnel health care workforce Monitor health status to identify the community health problems Monitoring & evaluation of population based health care services Operational research to find out new innovative solution to the health problems Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety. Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

243 SIX PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSIBILITIES
Prevention of  epidemics & spread of disease Protection of people  against environmental Hazards Prevention of  injuries Promotion & encouragement of  healthy behavior changes Quick response to the  disaster & to assist the communities in recovery phase To assure quality, accessible, and affordable comprehensive health care services Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

244 THE FOUR FOCUS OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Environmental Health Communicable Disease Control Food Hygiene Maternity & Child Health measures Environmental Health: Water Drainage Housing Rats, Mice and Mosquito control Nuisance Sanitation Diunduh dari: /12/2012

245 Environmental health focus on: Water
Establishment of Technical Assistance for maintenance of Water works. Surveillance of Water sources Control over bottled water supply Govt. ensure local authority to provide adequate continuous, wholesome water Role of Govt. and other authorities in Water supply Role of Railway Administration Periodical Examination of Water Action over the unsanitary sources Prevention of Pollution of Water Supply of Water during Fair or Festival Control over Private Water Sources. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

246 Environmental health focus on:
Drainage Responsibility of Local authority and private in construction of Drains and Cesspool Prevention of Let out of Sullage in the Streets Prevention of Disposal of injurious refuse into the Drain. H o u s i n g Prohibition of Occupation of House If it is without water supply If it is without Drain If there is nuisance If there is notified disease If it is unfit for Habituation Prohibition of Over crowding Not to be erected on certain places Registration, Renewal and Maintenance of Lodging House New house should be provided with sanitary conveniences. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

247 List of Notified Diseases List of infectious diseases:
Communicable Diseases: List of Notified Diseases Cerebrospinal fever Chickenpox Cholera Diphtheria Leprosy Measles Plague Rabies Scarlet fever Small pox Tuberculosis Infectious Hepatitis Epidemic Influenza Whooping cough Viral Encephalitis Hemorrhagic fever Malaria Tetanus Poliomyelitis AIDS List of infectious diseases: Acute influenza pneumonia Anthrax Cerebrospinal fever Chickenpox Cholera Diphtheria Enteric fever Leprosy Measles Plague Rabies Relapsing fever Scarlet fever Small pox Tuberculosis Typhus fever. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

248 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS

249 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER
An environmental disaster is a disaster to the natural environment due to human activity, which distinguishes it from the concept of a natural disaster. Environmental disasters can have an effect on agriculture, biodiversity, the economy and human health. The causes include pollution, depletion of natural resources, industrial activity or agriculture. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

250 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS BY CATEGORY
Agricultural: Environmental impact of agriculture Salinity in Australia Salinization of the Fertile Crescent The Dust Bowl in Canada and the United States (1934–1939) The Great sparrow campaign; sparrows were eliminated from Chinese farms, which caused locusts to swarm the farms and contributed to a famine which killed 38 million people. Africanized bees, known colloquially as "killer bees" Mismanagement of the Aral Sea "Dirty dairying" in New Zealand. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

251 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS BY CATEGORY
Biodiversity Chestnut blight Extinction of American megafauna Extinction of Australian megafauna Deforestation of Easter Island Destruction of the old growth forests Rabbits in Australia Red imported fire ants Dutch Elm Disease Devil facial tumour disease Reduction in the number of the American Bison Introduction of the Nile perch into Lake Victoria in Africa, decimating indigenous fish species Environmental threats to the Great Barrier Reef Invasive species in New Zealand The loss of Biodiversity of New Zealand Ghost nets Grounding of SS Makambo on Lord Howe Island Shark finning Decline of vultures in India due to Diclofenac leading to increased incidence of rabies Extinction of the Tasmanian Tiger Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

252 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS BY CATEGORY
Industrial Minamata disease- mercury poisoning in Japan (1950s & 1960s) Ontario Minamata disease in Canada Itai-itai disease, due to cadmium poisoning in Japan Love Canal toxic waste site Seveso disaster (1976), chemical plant explosion, caused highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations Bhopal disaster (December 3, 1984, India), The leak of methyl isocyanate that took place in 1984 resulted in more than 22,000 deaths (and counting) and the various genetic diseases that will continue to be seen for generations to come among the newly born, caused by the negligence and corruption, ignoring safety standards in India by Warren Anderson, CEO of Union Carbide, a US company now a subsidiary of Dow Chemicals. Sandoz chemical spill into the Rhine river (1986) United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites in the United States AZF Explosion at a Toulouse chemical factory (2001) The Sydney Tar Ponds and Coke Ovens sites in the city of Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, known as the largest toxic waste site in North America. Release of lead dust into Esperance Harbour. Release of cyanide, heavy metals and acid into the Alamosa River, Colorado from the Summitville mine, causing the death of all marine life within a 17 mile radius. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

253 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS BY CATEGORY
Nuclear Chernobyl disaster in 1986 in Chernobyl, Ukraine, "killed at least 4056 people and damaged almost $7 billion of property". Radioactive fallout from the accident concentrated near Belarus, Ukraine and Russia and at least 350,000 people were forcibly resettled away from these areas. Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster: Following an earthquake, tsunami, and failure of cooling systems at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant and issues concerning other nuclear facilities in Japan on March 11, 2011, a nuclear emergency was declared. This was the first time a nuclear emergency had been declared in Japan, and 140,000 residents within 20 km of the plant were evacuated. Mayak nuclear waste storage tank explosion, (Chelyabinsk, Soviet Union, 29 September 1957), 200+ people died and 270,000 people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels. Over thirty small communities had been removed from Soviet maps between 1958 and 1991. Windscale fire, United Kingdom, October 8, Fire ignites plutonium piles and contaminates surrounding dairy farms. Soviet submarine K-431 accident, August 10, 1985 (10 people died and 49 suffered radiation injuries). Soviet submarine K-19 accident, July 4, (8 deaths and more than 30 people were over-exposed to radiation). Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

254 NATURAL DISASTER A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of, or effecting, the Earth; examples include floods, severe weather, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover. An adverse event will not rise to the level of a disaster if it occurs in an area without vulnerable population. In a vulnerable area, however, such as San Francisco, an earthquake can have disastrous consequences and leave lasting damage, requiring years to repair. Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

255 NATURAL DISASTER 1. Avalanches 2 .Earthquakes 3 .Volcanic eruptions
4. Hydrological disasters : 4.1 Floods 4.2 Limnic eruptions 4.3 Tsunami 5 Meteorological disasters: 5.1 Blizzards 5.2 Cyclonic storms 5.3 Droughts 5.4 Hailstorms 5.5 Heat waves 5.6 Tornadoes 6. Wildfires 7. Health disasters: 7.1 Epidemics 8. Space disasters 8.1 Impact events 8.2 Solar flares 8.3 Gamma ray burst Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012

256 Global Stewardship Contribution to International Cooperation
Impact on Global Commons Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

257 CONTRIBUTION TO INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

258 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Contemporary Challenges in Sustainable Development Maintaining World Economic Growth, and Reducing World Poverty and Inequality World Population Growth and Food Production Conserving Biodiversity, Natural Habitats, and Natural Resources Meeting the Demand for Renewable Energy Political Instability and Violence, and Social Disruption and Dislocation Finance for Sustainable Development Diunduh dari: /12/2012

259 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
3. The Normative Dimension: The Evolution of Norms, Rules and Principles on Sustainable Development 3.1. Customary International Law and the Environment Prior to 1972 3.2. The Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment (1972) 3.3. The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (1992) 3.4. The Earth Summit II (1997) 3.5. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002) 4. The Cognitive Dimension: The Political-Economy of Sustainable Development 4.1. Genesis of the Concept of Sustainable Development 4.2. The Goals of Development 4.3. Market Instruments and Sustainable Development 4.4. Criticisms of Market Instruments Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

260 Multilateral Institutions and Sustainable Development Cooperation
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The Regulative Dimension: Multilateral Institutions and Sustainable Development Cooperation Multilateral Treaty-Making and the Environment The Institutional Framework for International Cooperation in Sustainable Development. Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

261 IMPACT ON GLOBAL COMMONS

262 According to the World Conservation Strategy:
GLOBAL COMMONS The term Global Commons refers to the earth's unowned natural resources, such as the oceans, Earth's atmosphere, and outer space. The definition does not specifically state define whether the absence of ownership is traditional or deliberate. Resources such as the Northern and Southern polar regions may be subject to disputes by some states. These resources are central to life. According to the World Conservation Strategy: "A commons is a tract of land or water owned or used jointly by the members of a community. The global commons includes those parts of the Earth's surface beyond national jurisdictions - notably the open ocean and the living resources found there - or held in common - notably the atmosphere. The only landmass that may be regarded as part of the global commons is Antarctica ...“. One issue that specifically affects the global commons is global warming /climate change. Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

263 TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS In economics, the tragedy of the commons is the depletion of a shared resource by individuals, acting independently and rationally according to each one's self-interest, despite their understanding that depleting the common resource is contrary to their long-term best interests. In 1968, ecologist Garrett Hardin explored this social dilemma in "The Tragedy of the Commons", published in the journal Science. The tragedy of the commons can be considered in relation to environmental issues such as sustainability. The commons dilemma stands as a model for a great variety of resource problems in society today, such as water, land, fish, and non-renewable energy sources such as oil and coal. Situations exemplifying the "tragedy of the commons" include the overfishing and destruction of the Grand Banks, the destruction of salmon runs on rivers that have been dammed. Other situations exemplifying the "tragedy of the commons" include pollution caused by driving cars. There are many negative externalities of driving; these include congestion, carbon emissions, and traffic accidents. Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

264 GENERAL EXAMPLES OF POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL TRAGEDIES
Publicly shared resources Radio frequencies – Unlicensed frequencies used for wireless communications, especially a/b/g in the U.S., detailed under Part 15 (FCC rules) would be vulnerable to the overuse of high power transmitters, especially overdriven transmitters with dirty signal profiles, and especially when combined with omnidirectional antennas, had the FCC not mandated maximum transmission power for each class of device and limitations on their spectral profile. Spam degrades the usefulness of the system and increases the cost for all users of the Internet while providing a benefit to only a tiny number of individuals. Vandalism and littering in public spaces such as parks, recreation areas, and public restrooms. Additionally, careless urination, defecation, and similar careless usage of public restrooms. Knowledge commons encompass immaterial and collectively owned goods in the information age. Freeways experience heavy traffic due to overuse. Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

265 GENERAL EXAMPLES OF POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL TRAGEDIES
Planet Earth ecology: Uncontrolled human population growth leading to overpopulation Air, whether ambient air polluted by industrial emissions and cars among other sources of air pollution, or indoor air. Water – Water pollution, Water crisis of over-extraction of groundwater and wasting water due to overirrigation Forests – Frontier logging of old growth forest and slash and burn Energy resources and climate – Burning of fossil fuels and consequential global warming Animals – Habitat destruction and poaching leading to the Holocene mass extinction Oceans – Overfishing. Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012


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