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1 IP/MPLS QoS over ATM. 2 Clarence Filsfils Tech. Consulting - EMEA.

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Presentation on theme: "1 IP/MPLS QoS over ATM. 2 Clarence Filsfils Tech. Consulting - EMEA."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 IP/MPLS QoS over ATM

2 2 Clarence Filsfils cfilsfil@cisco.com Tech. Consulting - EMEA

3 3 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Agenda IP COS over ATMIP COS over ATM IP COS over MPLS MPLS CoS over ATM IP QoS for Tag VPNs Conclusion

4 4 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IP COS over ATM: Overlay Model IP Layer: Diff-Serv Mechanisms Connectionless Per packet precedence (DS-byte) indicating priority for each packet limited number of COSs ATM Backbone: ATMF/ITU-T Qos mechanisms Per Connection Qos Very strict Qos Traffic classes: CBR, VBR, VBR-RT, UBR, ABR Traffic Parameters: PCR, MCR, SCR,.. How do I map the two worlds ???

5 5 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IOS IP ATM COS: Principles The ATM service contracted must be provided! (at least, loss less!) The ATM service contracted must be provided! (at least, loss less!) Routers traffic must be compliant with respect to ATM service contracted Routers traffic must be compliant with respect to ATM service contracted

6 6 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IOS IP ATM COS: Principles Congestion pushed back at the edge Congestion pushed back at the edge per-VC IP Queue develops per-VC IP Queue develops IP-intelligent QoS Mechanisms in the router IP-intelligent QoS Mechanisms in the router Because: ATM switch does not understand IP Because: ATM switch does not understand IP

7 7 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IP ATM COS-Ph1: Per-VC WRED Single VC per Pair of Routing Peers Multiple Service Classes on same VC WRED runs on each VC queue VC1 VC2

8 8 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Distributed VIP2 Architecture Route Switch Processors VIP2 xIP i Switch Processor Port Adapter Packet Memory PCI PCI CyBus Cisco 7500 Distributed Switching Distributed Services Distributed WRED/WFQ

9 9 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos ATM PA-A3 Architecture SAR PCI High-performance SAR Per-VC Queues/ Traffic Shaping ATM Shaping: CBR, VBR, ABR (all 3 modes) and UBR Single-wide port adapter for Cisco 7200/7500 DS3 E3 OC3c/STM1 MM OC3c/STM1 SM-IR OC3c/STM1 SM-LR

10 10 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Per-VC WRED : Intelligent IP Packet Discard VIP2-50PA-A3-XX Per-VC WRED: Intelligent Discard Threshold Exceeded VC1 VC2 VC3 No discard on PA TrafficShaping Per-VCQueues

11 11 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Per-VC WRED (cont.) ATM router interface shapes according to VBR, CBR or ABR* requirements Very low loss on ATM network is essential –Easy with CBR, VBR –Good match to ABR allowing elastic use of all available bandwidth (assuming low loss implementation, e.g. BPX) –Not effective with UBR VCs VCs not backlogged are unaffected! VC dimensioned so that all COSs get their appropriate quality * ABR : Future

12 12 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Per-VC WRED CLI WRED profile: random-detect group exponential weighting constant precedence To activate a WRED profile on a PVC: atm pvc [[ ] [ ]] [oam ] [inarp [ ] [random-detect [ ]

13 13 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Per-VC WRED CLI WRED parameters bound to a VC: show queueing red int [vc [[ /] ]] Queuing statistics of an ATM PVC: show queueing int [vc [[ /] ]]

14 14 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IPATMCOS-Ph1 CLI Cf IPATMCoS-Ph1 Design Guide

15 15 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Per-VC WRED CLI nf-7505-1# show run interface ATM1/1/0.47 point-to-point atm pvc 47 0 47 aal5snap 10 10 1 random-detect wredgroup1 nf-7505-1#show queueing red VC 0/47 - random-detect group default: exponential weight 9 precedence min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity --------------------------------------------------------------- 0: 20 40 1/10 1: 22 40 1/10 2: 24 40 1/10 3: 26 40 1/10

16 16 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Per-VC WRED CLI 7513-1-31#sh queueing int atm 11/0/0.103 VC 5/103 ATM11/0/0.103 queue size 83 packets output 1345843, drops 1590472 WRED: queue average 82 weight 1/512, max available buffers 1021 Precedence 0: 40 min threshold, 81 max threshold, 1/10 mark weight 1344366 packets output, drops: 134304 random, 1456168 threshold Precedence 1: 45 min threshold, 81 max threshold, 1/10 mark weight (no traffic) Precedence 2: 50 min threshold, 81 max threshold, 1/10 mark weight (no traffic) Precedence 3: 55 min threshold, 81 max threshold, 1/10 mark weight (no traffic)

17 IP ATM COS-Ph2: Bundle A single Bundle routing neighborship! Flexible IP CoS mapping to VCs RED (WRED) runs on each VC queue 942 flefauch@cisco.com NW98 17 © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. VC2: ABR VC1: VBR-nrt Prec: 5 - 7 Prec: 0 - 4 1! IGP neighborship

18 18 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Precedence to VC Mapping Mapping of precedence to VCs – 1 Precedence to 1 VC – Several Precedences to 1 VC Prec: 5 - 7 Prec: 0 - 4 VC2: ABR VC1: VBR-nrt

19 19 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos VC Provisioning VCs are dimensioned based on expected load for the precedence(s) level transported on that VC More isolation between classes At the expense of – less statistical multiplexing, – more complex provisioning/engineering VC2: ABR ??? PCR, MCR VC1: VBR-nrt ??? SCR, PCR, MBS

20 20 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos VC Bundle Mgnt Two Modes: – Protected VC rule : when a protected VC goes down, the bundle goes down – Protected group rule : when all members in the protected group fail, the bundle is delared DOWN –When a bundle is declared down, no traffic is forwarded out of the bundle (EVEN some VCs are still up).

21 21 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Bumping VC bumping: possibility for a traffic mapped to a VC X to be forwarded onto another VC Y, in case of failure of X. –Implicit bumping rule : Y is the next lower precedence level VC is selected, –Explicit bumping rule : Y is explicitely specified.

22 22 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Bumping (Cont.) Traffic is restored to the original VC when it comes back. « Reject Bumping »: It is possible for a VC to be configured not to accept the bumped traffic When no alternate VC for some bumped traffic, the bundle will be declared down.

23 23 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Bumping (Cont.) To prevent from declaring a bundle DOWN due to the failure of the lowest precedence VC, explicit bumping should be configured on the lowest precedence. Should be used in conjunction with the protected group rule If the VC which carries the bumped traffic fails also, the traffic will follow the bumping rules specified for that VC.

24 24 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Bundle example TOS 6-7 VC 1 - ATM VBR-nrt Protected VC TOS 4-5 VC 2 - ATM VBR-nrt Protected Group- bump explicit 7 TOS 0-1 VC 4 - ATM UBR Protected Group TOS 2-3 VC 3 - ATM VBR-nrt Protected Group - bump implicit

25 25 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos VC1 Failure Protected VC

26 26 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos VC2 Failure Explicit bumping

27 27 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos VC3 Failure Implicit bumping

28 28 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos VC2 & 3 & 4 Failures Protected group

29 29 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos CLI details Cf atmvcbundle.doc or Manuals

30 30 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IP ATM COS Roadmap Phase 1 - Per-VC WRED (single VC) –Cisco 7500 (VIP2-50/PA-A3) –FCS since 11.1(22)CC Phase 2 - Precedence Mapping (multiple VC) – Cisco 7200 (NPE-200/PA-A3) – Bundle Management – 12.0(3)T FCS 1Q99 (planned)* Phase 3 - Per-VC WFQ – Per-VC WFQ

31 31 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IP ATM COS Summary IP gateway uses/conforms to ATM service contract (ATM QoS) Queues are developed in router where intelligent decisions can be made (IP QoS) Does not requires any proprietary features onto ATM switches Still OVERLAY!

32 32 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Agenda IP COS over ATM IP COS over MPLSIP COS over MPLS MPLS CoS over ATM IP QoS for Tag VPNs Conclusion

33 33 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Agenda IP COS over ATMIP COS over ATM IP COS over MPLS MPLS CoS over ATM IP QoS for Tag VPNs

34 34 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos What is Tag/MPLS COS ? Conventional Router Tag Edge Routers ATM-TSR Frame-TSR Tag Non-Tag IP Diff-Serv COS end-to-end Support of Consistent IP Diff-Serv Classes of Service end-to-end when part of the network is running MPLS

35 35 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos MPLS CoS: 3 steps Step1: NON-MPLS – CAR/QPPB/CiscoAssure – WFQ/WRED MPLS IPv4 STEP1 STEP2 STEP3

36 36 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos MPLS CoS: 3 steps Step2: Label Imposition – LER sets MPLS CoS bits = IPv4 Prec; or – CoS is associated with label via LDP IPv4 Packet MPLS Hdr Prec: xyz MPLS CoS: xyz Non-MPLS Domain MPLS Domain 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Label | CoS |S| TTL |

37 37 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos MPLS CoS: 3 steps Step2: Label Imposition – LER sets MPLS CoS bits = IPv4 Prec; or – CoS is associated with label via LDP IPv4 Packet Prec: xyz P/p CoS1 17 P/p CoS2 22 P/p CoS3 25 P/p CoS4 12 Dest-CoS Label 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Label | UUU |S| TTL |

38 38 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos MPLS CoS: 3 steps Step 3: DiffServ inside MPLS domain based on MPLS-CoS field or CoS associated with Label – 3a: Frame MPLS CoS – 3b: ATM MPLS CoS

39 39 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Frame MPLS CoS Straightforward!!! Same Mechanisms as IP CoS Class Marker – MPLS CoS instead of Precedence; or – MPLS Label instead of Precedence Undistinguishable from IPv4 DiffServ

40 40 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos ATM MPLS CoS Great Opportunity! Peer Model instead of Overlay – IP intelligence at every hop – IP-friendly mech. on ATM switches! Diffserv instead of per-VC ATM QoS – Superior Resource Utilisation – Simpler Resource Allocation

41 41 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Peer vs Overlay Overlay Model: IP Intelligence Around Peer Model: IP Intelligence at every hop

42 42 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Agenda IP COS over ATM IP COS over MPLS MPLS CoS over ATMMPLS CoS over ATM IP QoS for Tag VPNs Conclusion

43 43 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Challenges No CoS field in ATM cells No WRED in switches – WFQ is often available in atm switches under the form of a WRR implementation

44 44 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Two Modes Single LSP in ABR mode Multi-LSP in TBR mode – Each has advantage and drawbacks TBR: Tag Bit Rate: ATM service category designed for Differv/MPLS

45 45 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Single `VC ABR mode Extention of IPATMCoS feature ABR control algorithms are enabled on LSPs ATM-LSRs push congestion towards edge LSRs Edge-LSRs: WRED/WFQ per-LSP queues ABR TSP ATM TSR

46 46 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Single VC ABR mode ATM-LSR Scheduling = per-VC ABR ABR parameters: – MCR is effectively zero (to avoid loss/blocking) Relative bandwidth – Relative bandwidth parameter carried by TDP and used by ABR algorithm

47 47 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Single VC ABR: Example A B London Paris KleinStadt Tarifa Equal sharing of link A-B is not always desirable: –Configure relative bandwidth on router-pair basis, e.g. Tarifa-KleinStadt = 1; London-Paris = 100 Resource Allocation : –Sharing of Bandwidth across Edge Pairs via Relative BW on a per TSP basis –Sharing of Bandwidth across COS performed through WRED on Edge Per VC ABR

48 48 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Multi-VC TBR mode Up to 4 parallel TSPs for the same prefix CoS TSPs mapping Optional setting of CLP for some CoS Parallel TBR TSPs ATM TSR Control Plane

49 49 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Multi-VC TBR mode Edge ATM-LSR: per CoS WFQ + per CoS WRED ATM-LSR: per CoS WFQ + per CoS WEPD Parallel TBR TSPs ATM TSR CoS Mechanism in cell Data path

50 50 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Multi-VC TBR mode: Example Queuing on all links is per-class WFQ (not per TSP) Resource allocation –Assign weight to each class on per-link basis (e.g. Premium gets 80% of link, Standard gets 20%) –Choice of weights based on expected load & desired performance PER CLASS –No per-router-pair configuration (config independent of topology & geography) Per COS WFQ

51 51 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Multi-VC TBR Mode: Example EPD is not RED, but... EPD thresholds can be set to different levels for different classes ---> WEPD Threshold scaling ensures that buffers are not wasted –allocation to each class decreases as total free buffer space decreases

52 52 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Single-ABR vs Multi-TBR Multi-VC TBR Mode: – Congestion managed directly at every hop (IP and ATM hops) – Possible Discard at every hop – Resource Allocation per COS per link; does not have to concern itself with topology and geography Single-VC ABR: – No Loss in the ATM fabric – Discard possible only on the Edge performed by Routers – Resource Allocation optionally per Pair of Edge Routers. Sharing of bandwidth across COS indirect via WRED profiles

53 53 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos ATM MPLS CoS: other cases MPLS CoS over ATM-Forum PVCs MPLS CoS over MPLS VP

54 54 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Tag over ATMF/ITU-T ATM PVC Generic Frame MPLS CoS Case! – A Frame TSR use normal ATM PVC with chosen ATM QoS – Perform all Service Differentiation on Frame TSRs at edge of ATM ATMPVC ATM PVC Tag ATM TDP ATM Forum ATM TDP TDP TDP TSPs

55 55 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Tag COS over Tag VP Tunnels ATM-LSR runs MPLS CoS inside an ATM VPs ATM VP is a virtual trunk between L1 and L2 TDP ATM Forum ATM TDP ATM VP Tag Switching TDP L1 L2

56 56 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Agenda IP COS over ATM IP COS over MPLS MPLS CoS over ATM IP QoS for Tag VPNsIP QoS for Tag VPNs Conclusion

57 57 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Tag VPN QoS 2 very distinct point of views: – How the SP will market the service (SLA) – What are the mechanisms for SP to meet the commitments/SLA FR analogy: – sell 64 kb/s CIR for 99.5% of the time – reserve 64/overbooking kb/s + admission control + selective discard + …

58 58 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos How to market MPLS VPN CoS? VPN SP ECR 128k VPN_A site 2 ICR 256k VPN_A site 3 ECR 128k ICR 256k ICR 256k ECR 128k VPN_A site 4

59 59 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Proposed SLA for CoS C1 As long as for each site S of VPN X: – S sends less than ICR – S receives less than ECR Then: – loss property is 10^(-n1) – RTT is < m1 ms

60 60 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Should offer different CoS! CoS X: [nx, mx], price Px Gold: [-10, 100ms],$$$ Silver: [-8, 200ms], $$ BE: [be, be], $

61 61 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Should not be marketed as Frame Relay QoS: – N1 kb/s guaranteed from Site 1 to Site 2 – N2 kb/s guaranteed from Site 1 to Site 3 – N3 kb/s guaranteed from Site 2 to Site 3 – … Layer 2 based VPNs (ie FR or ATM) address that need How it should not be marketed

62 62 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos How to meet SLA Enforcement of ICR: – CAR: policing in/out of profile MPLS CoS in the SPs backbone – single-ABR, multi-TBR mode – DiffServ engineering – Per-Class LSP Traffic Engineering in the backbone Enforcement of ECR

63 63 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos DiffServ Engineering Scalability: no per-VPN QoS in BB Per-Class Scheduling/Discarding at every hop Resource Allocation based on ICR/ECR sold – share each trunk between different Classes – start conservative – then monitor traffic per class and fine tune – Optimise with per-class Traffic Engineering – Cisco Service Management tool for Tag VPN QoS provisioning

64 64 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Per-VPN WFQ For ATM-ABR model or ATMF PVC Scalability: only at edge! VPN_1 Per VC Q on Tag ABR-VC to Remote PE Per VPN WFQ Per COS WRED PE ATM Tag Backbone Single-VC ABR Mode VPN_2 VPN_3

65 65 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos MPLS VPN CoS: Sum up Frame, single LSP ATM, single-ABR mode ATM, multi-TBR mode ATM, ATM-Forum/ITU pvc

66 66 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Frame, single LSP VPN_A VPN_B 10.2 10.1 11.5 11.6 PE PP PP PE 3 PE 4 CE -2 PE: Single TSP per COS Scheduling & Discard -4- non Tag COS on output: WRED, TS -3-P: Single TSP per COS Scheduling/Discard COS_0 COS_1 COS_7 Per COS WFQ Per COS WRED -1-CAR: Mark in-profile (eg Silver VPN) Mark out-profile (Optionally Mark per application, per user…) Per COS WFQ Per COS WRED

67 67 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos ATM, single-ABR mode VPN_A VPN_B 10.2 10.1 11.5 11.6 PE PP PP PE 3 PE 4 CE -1-CAR: Mark in-profile (eg Silver VPN) Mark out-profile (Optionally Mark per application, per user…) -2- PE Scheduling & Discard -4- non Tag COS on output: WRED, TS VPN_1 VPN_2 VPN_N Per VC Q (to PE 3) Per VPN WFQ Per COS WRED VPN_1 VPN_2 VPN_N Per VC Q (to PE 4) Per VPN WFQ Per COS WRED -3- ABR TSP Per VC Queuing, Relative BandwidthRelative Bandwidth used to apportion bandwidth across competing ABR VCs

68 68 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos ATM, multi-TBR VPN_A VPN_B 10.2 10.1 11.5 11.6 PE PP PP PE 3 PE 4 CE -2 PE Scheduling & Discard -4- non Tag COS on output: WRED, TS -3- TBR Multi-VC Per Class WFQ COS_0 COS_1 COS_7 Per COS WFQ Per COS WRED -1-CAR: Mark in-profile (eg Silver VPN) Mark out-profile (Optionally Mark per application, per user…) Per COS Dynamic WEPD

69 69 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos ATM, ATM-forum/ITU PVC VPN_A VPN_B 10.2 10.1 11.5 11.6 PE PE 3 PE 4 CE -1-CAR: Mark in-profile (eg Silver VPN) Mark out-profile (Optionally Mark per application, per user…) -2- PE Scheduling & Discard -4- non Tag COS on output: WRED, TS VPN_1 VPN_2 VPN_N Per VC Q (to PE 3) Per VPN WFQ Per COS WRED VPN_1 VPN_2 VPN_N Per VC Q (to PE 4) Per VPN WFQ Per COS WRED -3- ATM Forum/ITU-T ATM PVC (CBR, VBR, ABR) NormalATM Forum/ITU-T scheduling/discarding (CBR, VBR, ABR) Non-Tag Capable ATM Switches

70 70 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos Agenda IP COS over ATM IP COS over MPLS MPLS CoS over ATM IP QoS for Tag VPNs ConclusionConclusion

71 71 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IP COS over ATM: Conclusions IP is the end2end QoS enabler –Applications are running on IP, and Networks are constituted of diverse media's. Therefore QoS end-to-end has to be provided by IP DiffServ model for IP CoS scalable –IETFs Differentiated Services is an extremely scalable COS model and is likely to become widespread

72 72 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IP COS over ATM: Conclusions IP Diff-Servs CoS over ATM: – Overlay: IOS IP ATM COS – Peer: MPLS COS ATM-LSRs: IP controlled and IP QoS aware tighter IP/ATM integration

73 73 Cisco Systems Confidential Clarence Filsfils - atm-mpls-cos IP COS over ATM: Conclusions Perfect illustration: MPLS VPNs – Scalability of Diff-Serv COS – Several SLAs (Gold, Silver, BE) – integration IP & ATM


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