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Strengthening African Media: What does Africa think Gerry Power Director, Research & Knowledge Management World Bank Washington DC February 22, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Strengthening African Media: What does Africa think Gerry Power Director, Research & Knowledge Management World Bank Washington DC February 22, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strengthening African Media: What does Africa think Gerry Power Director, Research & Knowledge Management World Bank Washington DC February 22, 2007

2 BBC World Service Trust - Background Realising Media’s Importance in Achieving Development and Good Governance Media Development and Development Communications 40 countries

3 AMDI - Background UK Commission for Africa Recommendation: “independent media institutions, public service broadcasters, civil society and the private sector, with support from governments, should form a consortium of partners, in Africa and outside, to provide funds and expertise to create an African media development facility” --- Our Common Interest, April 2005 “What Role Can the Media Play in the Fight Against Global Poverty?” BBC World Service Trust/DFID conference, November 2004 * * *

4 AMDI - Background Consultations Research Technical Workshop Advisory Group Amadou Mahtar Ba, AllAfrica,com Luckson Chipare, Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA) Wilfred Kiboro, Nation Media Group Arlindo Lopes, Southern African Broadcasting Association (SABA) Moeletsi Mbeki, Endemol Edetean Ojo, Media Rights Agenda Lynne Muthoni Wanyeki, FEMNET Supported by: DFID, Gates Foundation, IFC, Irish Aid

5 African Media Development Initiative

6 www.bbcworldservicetrust.org/amdi www.bbcworldservicetrust.org/amdi 17 Individual Country Reports

7 AMDI Research countries WEST Cameroon Ghana Senegal Sierra Leone Nigeria (hub) Research objectives Q: Understand what are the key changes/developments in the media sector? Q: How have media development activities contributed to the development of the media during this time? Q: What contributions are likely to make the greatest impact on the development of the media within sub-Saharan Africa in the future? Research design  17 countries grouped into 3 regional hubs  Intensive 2 day project briefing for country based researchers  Matched sample profile country STAGE 1: Media landscape desk research –Country statistics –Growth/proliferation of media –NGO media development activity –Observations STAGE 2: In-depth audio-recorded interviews (300) –15 interviews in each of 17 countries with representatives from government, NGOs, private and state media, educationalists and commentators –15 continental interviews across 3 regions –12 international interviews –Transcribed and translated EAST Ethiopia DRC Kenya Somalia Tanzania Uganda SOUTH Angola Botswana Mozambique South Africa Zambia Zimbabwe

8 Media Landscape – Key Facts

9 General Observations  Generally low awareness of breadth and potential of media development activities  Widespread consensus and passion about priorities for strengthening the media sector  Acknowledgement that progress has been made on multiple fronts  Overall absence of coordination between stakeholders  Data on media is lacking in quantity and quality  Evidence of effectiveness is generally not available  Small and unsustainable nature of current investment

10 Landscape – Key Facts Radio is still the dominant media in the surveyed countries, with major growth in regional commercial radio. Television is more widespread although growth is significantly less dramatic than that for radio. National state TV dominates, growth in pay-TV and satellite channels is reported. National dailies and weeklies continue to dominate over regional outlets and remain concentrated in urban centres. Significant increases in the numbers of journalists with a concomitant rise in amateur and untrained journalists. Marginal increase in numbers of university media/journalism entities. Vocational training entities remains static. Mobile telephone use has shown dramatic increases in every country far outstripping internet usage Commercial Regional Radio stations increased in all countries with the exception of Ethiopia and Zimbabwe. In the DRC expanded from 8 in 2000/2 to 150 in 2004/5 State Regional TV in Nigeria has expanded from 58 channels in 2000 to 130 in 2004-6 Six countries report an increase in the number of national dailies and eight an increase in national weeklies, compared to 3 each for regional dailies and weeklies Six countries report an increase of 50% or greater in the reported number of practising journalists over a five-year period Twelve countries have three or more universities offering academic programmes in journalism Eight countries report in excess of 2000 % increase in mobile telephone subscribers

11 Four Key Drivers Media Policy and Legislation Media Infrastructure and Investment Professionalisation Supporting Local Content Production

12 Media Policy and Legislation

13 Assessment of Current Status  Legislation which guarantees access to and freedom of information  Reform of laws regarding criminal defamation and insult  Laws that exist to enable media regulatory bodies to operate independently  Provisions that aim to secure the independence of publicly owned media In countries such as Ghana and Nigeria legislation for access to information has been pending government approval for up to six years now Repressive practices such as state- sponsored mechanisms for the sanctioning of journalists were still reported to exist in 8 countries (Angola, DRC, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia) Eight countries (Cameroon, DRC, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia and Zimbabwe) do not have such legislation while the ones that do have regulatory bodies, they are state-run Only 2 Ghana and South Africa appeared to have established provisions in place to secure the independence of publicly owned media

14 Assessment of Current Status  Provisions to support community or alternative media  Regulatory obligation for public or state broadcaster to fulfil a public service broadcasting remit  Regulatory obligation for commercial broadcaster to fulfil a public service broadcasting remit Five countries (Angola, Botswana, Nigeria, Somalia and Zimbabwe) appeared to offer no provisions for, and had no legislation in place to support community or alternative media Ten countries (Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, DRC, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Zimbabwe) reported that there were no regulatory obligations for public or state broadcasters to fulfil a public service broadcasting remit There are no regulatory obligations for private or independent broadcasters to fulfil a public service broadcasting remit in seven countries (Angola, Botswana, DRC, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia and Zimbabwe)

15 Advocacy – Future Priorities Effective work requires engaging multiple stakeholders Civil society activism Public fora Public debate Civil society activism Public fora Public debate MISA Transparent structures and systems Transparent structures and systems Governance and practice Governance and practice Broaden the debate at multiple levels Develop strong regional networks Invest in organisational reform of state media Accountability of private media Nigeria Ghana Zambia Ethiopia Uganda Zimbabwe Nigeria Ghana Zambia Ethiopia Uganda Zimbabwe Prioritise extreme individual cases

16 Independent Regulatory Bodies – Future Priorities Agreement on their value in the coordination and implementation of compliance Training Regulating conduct Accreditation Public complaints Training Regulating conduct Accreditation Public complaints Code of conduct Guidelines Monitor performance Code of conduct Guidelines Monitor performance Strengthen existing bodiesCreate a new infrastructure

17 State Control – Future Priorities Key barrier to media development is the control that states exert over media Strengthen regulatory frameworks Consistent Policy on Allocation of licenses Protection of journalists Freedom of expression and access to information

18 Media Infrastructure & Investment

19 Infrastructure  Poor state of media infrastructure universally acknowledged  Equipment  Maintenance  Facilities  Upgrading  Dearth of reliable information on media support agencies - variability in numbers and ownership status of news agencies - variability in the presence of media monitoring agencies - poor market research infrastructure - growing number of advertising agencies “If your transmitter breaks down you can stay three months without working, the time to order and receive a new transmitter…people could work on that type of technical support” (Senegal)

20 Context MEDIA ORGANISATION EQUIPMENT NEEDS FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY INVESTMENT NEWS AGENCIES, ADVERTISING AGENCIES, MARKET RESEARCH AGENCES, MEDIA MONITORING AGENCIES, INDEPENDENT PRODUCTION COMPANIES

21 Investment – Future Priorities  Tailoring finance, and bridging the finance gap Return on Investment on a typical infrastructure investment (eg, a printing press) exceeds the normal lending cycle of local banks.  Improve utilisation of existing finance schemes Lack of widespread awareness and/or utilisation of existing media financing schemes (eg, Southern Africa Media Development Fund).  Facilitate the funding of equipment Support physical media infrastructure through the provision, maintenance and upgrading of equipment.  Create mechanisms allowing organisations to share technical facilities Smaller enterprises could form networks or unions to share facilities (eg, transmitters).  Identify opportunities for collective purchasing of equipment The benefits of a more collaborative approach to the procurement of technology was also identified as a useful model that could be shared or replicated in other regions.  Support the upgrading of equipment and skills Funding of ICT programmes is a priority in terms of supporting upgrade and improvement of infrastructure and to introduce or develop ICT skills among media practitioners.

22 Professionalisation

23 Context  Professional, ethical, management and technical standards remain disappointingly low  Three key factors contribute: -insufficient or poor quality training/training institutions -rapid growth of media in some countries -low salaries and status of journalism  A plethora of training initiatives is being carried out but too many are seen as ad hoc, lacking a strategic plan, insufficiently funded and too short-term  Future programmes need to be more relevant (culture-specific) and to include monitoring and evaluation

24 Professionalisation – Lessons Learned  Institutional Investment Investment into quality schools/centres of excellence is a powerful tool. However more is not better as the overall increase in the number in schools is sometimes inflated by mushrooming sub-standard journalism schools.  Partnerships Professional development programmes based on diverse partnership arrangements have been deemed effective thanks to the resulting customisation of training according to the needs of the cultural reality on the ground.  In-house training Professional development deemed more successful when designed and delivered in collaboration with beneficiary media organisations. This adds value to the training because of the focus on media practices in the organisational context within which the journalist operates.  Multi-phased training Ongoing, or multi-phased training has more impact, especially in conjunction with mentoring programmes.

25 Professionalisation – Future Priorities Media organisations POINTS OF ENGAGEMENT Educational/Training Institutions Strategic professional development Management courses Training in specialist disciplines Incentivise trainees Retention programmes mechanisms Strategic professional development Management courses Training in specialist disciplines Incentivise trainees Retention programmes mechanisms Strengthen existing programmes through sharing good practice, harmonising curricula and updating courses and equipment Professional development for those delivering training Criteria for accreditation Strengthen existing programmes through sharing good practice, harmonising curricula and updating courses and equipment Professional development for those delivering training Criteria for accreditation Evaluation mechanisms help course providers and trainees to sustain skills, and determine ROI

26 Supporting Local Content Production

27 Supporting local content production: issues  State controlled media delivers material which is too closely aligned to government/ruling party  Views of the urban elite over-represented in all media, but particularly commercial media  Community media caters for under-served groups but often lack long term sustainability Capitalise on the national reach of the state broadcasters and stimulate in-house and local production through more creative commissioning and funding processes

28 Local Content Production – Future Priorities Media organisations are challenged to improve the quality and diversity of their content to appeal to and grow their audiences Foster local production skills Quotas could be imposed to meet a public service remit Quotas could be imposed to meet a public service remit Content in local languages Focus on issues which are Culturally relevant Content in local languages Focus on issues which are Culturally relevant Wider range of content for development issues Produce compelling, entertaining content Train journalists to widen the agenda with regard to development issues Produce compelling, entertaining content Train journalists to widen the agenda with regard to development issues Support cultural identity

29 Facilitators and Enablers for Local Content Production Provision of equipment Training programmes News Agencies Market research Regulatory reform Monitoring

30 Principles, Identity and Organisation

31 6 Key Principles to Guide an Initiative  Develop locally or regionally defined agenda – framed and co- owned by participants and beneficiaries  Adopt a Needs-based approach – reflecting gaps and requirements  Apply a Collaborative approach – from the ground up  Embed sustainable objectives  Employ a reasonable timeframe – need to design projects for the long-term and avoid the ‘quick win’  Embed M&E – develop and use standardised methodologies

32 Widespread Endorsement of a Pan-African Approach Benefits:  Create space for advocacy – benefits of international pressure  Shared learning – data gathering, good practice, success stories  Joint purchasing – regional purchasing power, harmonisation of trading practices  Integrated funding – strong regional economic leverage

33 Organisation Structure  No demand for a new organisation  African leadership is taken as a given  Autonomous funding structure  Secure funding and improve options  Establish criteria for donor coordination – holistic strategy  Avoid duplication at the point of delivery

34 Summary  Information deficit prevails across the sector  Media outlets growing in diversity and number  Inconsistent implementation and commitment to media legislation  Low standards among media practitioners  Poor equipment, facilities and technical support  Need for: -a more strategic perspective -a more holistic approach to strengthening the sector -greater recognition of the role of media in development -greater coordination by donors and delivery organisations -more production of content relevant to local audiences -more sustainable models of media development

35 “It is extremely important. You can’t talk about democratisation without media…. especially here in Angola where we still have to explain to the people that democracy is not an alien thing, but about participation in the business of the country, rights and welfare of the country. And this is achieved through information.” (Luisa Rogerio, Secretary-General, Media Support: Sindicato dos Jornalistas de Angola, Angola)

36 Proposed Next Steps Six Month Development Process to Produce Fully Designed and Costed Proposal: Pan African Five Year Duration Holistic/Strategic Donor Money to Catalyse Sustainable Activity and Investment Development Components: Technical Work to Mature Strategies and Interventions High-Level Advocacy with Future Partners and Investors Stakeholder’s Consultation


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