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Register variation in tourism terminology Virginia Pulcini Università degli Studi di Torino THE STUDY OF LEXICON ACROSS CULTURAL IDENTITIES AND TEXTUAL.

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Presentation on theme: "Register variation in tourism terminology Virginia Pulcini Università degli Studi di Torino THE STUDY OF LEXICON ACROSS CULTURAL IDENTITIES AND TEXTUAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Register variation in tourism terminology Virginia Pulcini Università degli Studi di Torino THE STUDY OF LEXICON ACROSS CULTURAL IDENTITIES AND TEXTUAL GENRES University of Verona, November 2010

2 Outline focus on the language of tourism focus on the language of tourism lexis and terminology lexis and terminology English loanwords in the Italian language of tourism English loanwords in the Italian language of tourism register variation in tourism discourse register variation in tourism discourse Anglicisms and Italian equivalents in a B2B corpus Anglicisms and Italian equivalents in a B2B corpus

3 the specialized discourse of tourism a type of discourse which possesses all the lexical, phonetic, morphosyntactic and textual resources of general language (Gotti 2006: 19) a type of discourse which possesses all the lexical, phonetic, morphosyntactic and textual resources of general language (Gotti 2006: 19) scientific journalism: brochures, advertisements, tourist guides, newspaper articles scientific journalism: brochures, advertisements, tourist guides, newspaper articles geography, architecture, cuisine, transport, entertainment, fitness, beauty care (B2C), business, economics (B2B) geography, architecture, cuisine, transport, entertainment, fitness, beauty care (B2C), business, economics (B2B)

4 the terminological principle terms identify a single concept and unambiguously serve the communicative purposes of professionals in a specialized field (Cabré 1999) terms identify a single concept and unambiguously serve the communicative purposes of professionals in a specialized field (Cabré 1999) monoreferentiality monoreferentiality word a unit of language referring to an element in reality word a unit of language referring to an element in reality term a word referring to an element in a specialized domain term a word referring to an element in a specialized domain

5 hub (mech.) the central part of a circular object (as a wheel or propeller) (tech.) a central device that connects multiple computers on a single network (aer.) an airport or city through which an airline routes most of its traffic focus, core or central part of sth (adapted from Merriam Webster online)

6 repeater someone that repeats or recites (tech.) a device for receiving communication signals and delivering corresponding amplified ones (tech.) a watch or clock with a striking mechanism that upon pressure of a spring will indicate the time in hours or quarters and sometimes minutes etc. (tour.) a repeater or repeat tourist is a tourist who returns to a destination or purchases a product from the same supplier on a regular basis

7 concept-oriented concept concept designation reality (or term) discourse discourse (Cabré 1999:81)

8 register variation (field & tenor) If we extend terminology to include professional or sports vocabularies, or those vocabularies related to some human activity, the number of terminology users increases and diversifies substantially and at the same time the degree of specialisation of these uses decreases considerably. If we extend terminology to include professional or sports vocabularies, or those vocabularies related to some human activity, the number of terminology users increases and diversifies substantially and at the same time the degree of specialisation of these uses decreases considerably. (Cabré 1999: 144)

9 flouting the terminological principle booking / reservation booking / reservation book: to reserve in advance book: to reserve in advance reserve: to set or have set aside or apart reserve: to set or have set aside or apart to make a booking = to make a reservation to make a booking = to make a reservation airline booking or airline reservation airline booking or airline reservation holiday booking, not *holiday reservation holiday booking, not *holiday reservation

10 The English element in the Italian language of Tourism tour operator/ operatore turistico tour operator/ operatore turistico check-in/ accettazione low cost/ basso costo all inclusive / tutto compreso the coexistence of a foreign term along with the a native equivalent can be regarded as a case of multiple terminology the coexistence of a foreign term along with the a native equivalent can be regarded as a case of multiple terminology

11 a corpus of B2B tourist language weekly magazine Il Giornale del Turismo weekly magazine Il Giornale del Turismo 56,161 tokens / 8,976 types 56,161 tokens / 8,976 types 300 non-adapted Anglicisms (3.3%) 300 non-adapted Anglicisms (3.3%) 145 (1.6%) general language 145 (1.6%) general language 80 (0.8%) business and economics 80 (0.8%) business and economics 50 (0.5%) tourism 50 (0.5%) tourism tour operator: 35 occurrences (0.06%, 6.2% per 10,000 words) tour operator: 35 occurrences (0.06%, 6.2% per 10,000 words)

12 Table 1. Occurrences of anglicisms and their Italian equivalents in the GdT corpus tour operator 35 operatore turistico - incoming18 in entrata 1 resort13 località turistica, complesso turistico - all inclusive 11 tutto compreso - booking8prenotazione14 low cost 8 basso costo - business travel 7 turismo daffari 2 leisure6 tempo libero 1 last minute 3 ultimo minuto - repeater3 clienti abituali -

13 Table 2. Occurrences of anglicisms and their Italian equivalents in the La Repubblica corpus tour operator 662 operatore turistico 82 (turismo) incoming 1 (turismo) in entrata 2 resort14 località turistica, complesso turistico all inclusive 2 tutto compreso tutto incluso 4802 booking10prenotazione862 low cost 17 basso costo 1,155 business travel 4 turismo daffari 2 leisure17 tempo libero 2,246 last minute 23 ultimo minuto 2,304 repeater- clienti abituali 93

14 Table 3. Occurrences of anglicisms and their Italian equivalents in the ItWac tour operator 5526 operatore turistico 2577 (turismo) incoming 17 (turismo) in entrata 7 resort3236 località turistica, complesso turistico all inclusive 909 tutto compreso tutto incluso booking740prenotazione39,219 low cost 1,895 basso costo 9,339 business travel 102 viaggio, turismo daffari 8 leisure533 tempo libero 28,778 last minute 3,274 ultimo minuto 4,394 repeater2 clienti abituali 330

15 conclusions (1) tour operator is preferred in all registers tour operator is preferred in all registers in the GdT corpus tour operator, resort, all inclusive, low cost, last minute and repeaters are used consistently with no Italian equivalents in the GdT corpus tour operator, resort, all inclusive, low cost, last minute and repeaters are used consistently with no Italian equivalents in the GdT corpus prenotazione is preferred to booking in the GdT corpus prenotazione is preferred to booking in the LRep corpus Italian equivalents are general words and phrases also widely used in contexts different from tourism in the LRep corpus Italian equivalents are general words and phrases also widely used in contexts different from tourism in the web corpus tour operator, incoming, resort and business travel are more frequently used than the Italian equivalents. Italian equivalents are general words and phrases widely used in contexts different from tourism in the web corpus tour operator, incoming, resort and business travel are more frequently used than the Italian equivalents. Italian equivalents are general words and phrases widely used in contexts different from tourism

16 conclusions (2) Anglicisms are used and often preferred for stylistic reasons in all registers and styles Anglicisms are used and often preferred for stylistic reasons in all registers and styles Anglicisms are more frequently found in web language than in newspaper language Anglicisms are more frequently found in web language than in newspaper language Anglicisms are favoured by experts because they better answer the need for monoreferentiality and conciseness Anglicisms are favoured by experts because they better answer the need for monoreferentiality and conciseness linguistically Anglicisms are better suited to be used as terms in specialized discourse linguistically Anglicisms are better suited to be used as terms in specialized discourse

17 resort semantic process of narrowing and metonymic extension semantic process of narrowing and metonymic extension English: a place where a lot of people go on holiday/vacation English: a place where a lot of people go on holiday/vacation Italian: Albergo situato in spazi aperti, al di fuori di un centro urbano: un r. nel deserto Propr. luogo di vacanza, luogo di soggiorno (Devoto-Oli) Italian: Albergo situato in spazi aperti, al di fuori di un centro urbano: un r. nel deserto Propr. luogo di vacanza, luogo di soggiorno (Devoto-Oli)

18 resort, hotel and villaggio appear not to be interchangeable appear not to be interchangeable L'offerta riguarda tutte le tipologie di vacanza quali week end nelle capitali europee, villaggi, soggiorni presso hotel e resort, settimane bianche, crociere, gift e tour di medio e lungo raggio. Resort is semantically better suited to refer to holiday complexes because of its monosemin semanti status, hyperonymic value and specificity

19 low cost – basso costo several grammatical functions in Italian: several grammatical functions in Italian: compagnia aerea low cost, voli low cost, le low cost, vola low cost

20 codeshare, codesharing no equivalent in Italian no equivalent in Italian Accordo commerciale tra due compagnie aeree che operano sulla stessa tratta ognuna con il proprio aereo e decidono di mantenere uno solo dei due voli vendendo ciascuna anche per conto dellaltro i posti disponibili a bordo: accordo commerciale di c.s. Comp. di code codice e sharing compartecipazione Oltre agli accordi di codeshare, la collaborazione tra Alitalia e Jet Airways prevede partnership su programmi frequent flyer, su attività di scalo e su servizi cargo.

21 prenotazione - booking Advance booking, advanced booking Advance booking, advanced booking are preferred to prenotazione anticipata Prenotazione fatta con notevole anticipo, spec. per l'acquisto a prezzo scontato di biglietti o viaggi. CFR. First minute, last minute. (Zingarelli)

22 last minute – ultimo minuto vacanza last minute, domanda last minute vacanza last minute, domanda last minute semantic preference: offerte, occasioni (deals) semantic preference: offerte, occasioni (deals) semantic prosody in Italian: positive semantic prosody in Italian: positive in English: something done before it is too late (negative prosody) in English: something done before it is too late (negative prosody)

23 check-in accettazione is never used in the GtD corpus accettazione is never used in the GtD corpus fare il check-in, check-in online, zona check-in fare il check-in, check-in online, zona check-in metonymic extension of check-in desk metonymic extension of check-in desk Evitare file ai check-in, controlli e scanner oltre a lunghe attese nelle sale di imbarco e viaggiare come degli executive manager di grandi multinazionali è il sogno di molte persone.

24 leisure – tempo libero important sub-sector in tourism: leasure tourism vs business tourism important sub-sector in tourism: leasure tourism vs business tourism settore leisure, turismo leisure settore leisure, turismo leisure tempo libero has a more generic value tempo libero has a more generic value

25 all inclusive – tutto compreso usually hyphenated in English (all-inclusive) usually hyphenated in English (all-inclusive) patterns: formula all inclusive, in all inclusive patterns: formula all inclusive, in all inclusive Le prime pagine del catalogo sono dedicate a vacanze mare in destinazioni decisamente adatte alle esigenze dei turisti italiani, con 26 soluzioni di soggiorno in resort e villaggi in formula all inclusive o in pensione completa in località di lungo raggio come Maldive, Cuba, Mauritius, Kenya, Zanzibar…

26 neologisms: Voyage designer Voyage designer Il Voyage Designer, lo stilista dei viaggi (una figura professionale sviluppatasi negli Stati Uniti), ha nel nome la propria missione: la soddisfazione del cliente attraverso la ricerca dello stile in una vacanza tailor made. Fam trip / familiarization trip. A low-cost trip or tour offered to travel agents by a supplier or group of suppliers to familiarize the agents with their destination and services. Fam trip / familiarization trip. A low-cost trip or tour offered to travel agents by a supplier or group of suppliers to familiarize the agents with their destination and services.


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