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Objectives The student will be able to: ● Distinguish between accuracy and precision ● Use significant figures in measurements and calculations

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Accuracy and Precision ● Careful measurements are _________ in science ● No measurement is perfect ● Two terms that describe this imperfection: o Accuracy: the extent to which a reported measurement approaches the ___________of the quantity measured o Precision: the degree of ___________ or refinement of a measurement

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Accuracy vs Precision

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Sources of Error Problems with accuracy are due to error ● Human Error: Mistakes made in _________ an instrument or recording the results ● Method Error: When measurements are taken using different methods o Parallax: An overestimate or underestimate due to the improper viewing of a measuring device ● ________ Error: Improperly displayed measurements due to poorly calibrated devices

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Precision and Significant Figures ● Significant figures (Sig Figs) describe the ____________ of a measuring device ● Significant Figures: those digits in a measurement that are known with certainty ______ the first digit that is _________

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Review of Sig Fig Rules Nonzero Digits are __________ significant! 46.3 has 3 sig figs. Zero Rules: ● Zeros between other ___________ digits are ___________ - 50.3 m has three sig figs ● Zeros _____________of nonzero digits are ____ significant - 0.553 m has three sig figs ● Zeros that are _______ at the end of the number and to the ________ of the decimal point are significant. - 50.00 has four sig figs ● Zeros at the end of a number, but to the left of the decimal point may not be significant. If the place wasn’t estimated, it’s not significant. *Example: 100 has 1 significant figure*

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LETS PLAY: THE SIG FIG IS RIGHT Determine how many sig figs are in the following quantities: 1. 5.03 2. 3.0025 3. 0.0892 4. 0.00008 5. 57.00 6. 2.000000 7. 2100 8. 0.75 SIG FIG

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Rules For Calculating Sig Figs ● Addition and Subtraction: o Final answer should have the ________ number of sig figs to the right of the decimal place as the number with the _________ number of digits to the right of the decimal ● Multiplication and Division: o The final answer should have the ________ number of sig figs as the measurement having the __________number of sig figs

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Rounding Rule ● If the digit being rounded is less than five, round down ● If the digit being rounded is five or greater, round up

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LETS PLAY: THE SIG FIG IS RIGHT... AGAIN! Determine what the final answer would look like after performing the indicated operation for the following questions: -97.3 + 5.85 -123 x 5.35 -57 + 3.021 x 74.3 SIG FIG AGAIN

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Wrap Up Answer the following questions: ● Why are significant figures important? ● What steps could an experimenter take to ensure that their experiment is as accurate as possible?

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