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Discrete Mathematics Unit - I

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Set Theory Sets and Subsets A well-defined collection of objects (the set of outstanding people, outstanding is very subjective) finite sets, infinite sets, cardinality of a set, subset A={1,3,5,7,9} B={x|x is odd} C={1,3,5,7,9,...} cardinality of A=5 (|A|=5) A is a proper subset of B. C is a subset of B.

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Set Theory Sets and Subsets set equality subsets

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Set Theory Sets and Subsets null set or empty set : {}, universal set, universe: U power set of A: the set of all subsets of A A={1,2}, P(A)={ , {1}, {2}, {1,2}} If |A|=n, then |P(A)|=2 n.

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Set Operations Arithmetic operators (+,-, , ) can be used on pairs of numbers to give us new numbers Similarly, set operators exist and act on two sets to give us new sets – Union $\cup$ – Intersection $\cap$ – Set difference $\setminus$ – Set complement $\overline{S}$ – Generalized union $\bigcup$ – Generalized intersection $\bigcap$

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Set Operators: Union Definition: The union of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements in A, B, r both. We write: A B = { x | (a A) (b B) } U AB

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Set Operators: Intersection Definition: The intersection of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements that are element of both A and B. We write: A B = { x | (a A) (b B) } U AB

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Disjoint Sets Definition: Two sets are said to be disjoint if their intersection is the empty set: A B = U AB

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Set Difference Definition: The difference of two sets A and B, denoted A\B ($\setminus$) or A−B, is the set containing those elements that are in A but not in B U AB

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Set Complement Definition: The complement of a set A, denoted A ($\bar$), consists of all elements not in A. That is the difference of the universal set and U: U\A A= A C = {x | x A } U A A

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Set Complement: Absolute & Relative Given the Universe U, and A,B U. The (absolute) complement of A is A=U\A The (relative) complement of A in B is B\A U A A U B A

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