Presentation on theme: "Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Early Beginnings 1400 BCE Hebrews move into Palestine (modern-day Israel) They were shepherds from Mesopotamia (modern-day."— Presentation transcript:
Early Beginnings 1400 BCE Hebrews move into Palestine (modern-day Israel) They were shepherds from Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) searching for water Hebrews were eventually attacked and scattered across the world
Diaspora- the movement or migration of people from their ancestral homeland
Hebrews + God 1 st to believe in one god (monotheism) Others continued to believe in many gods (polytheism) Yahweh was the name given to God
Abraham Founder of monotheism Had a wife – Sarah, God promised them child Sarah was too old to have a child so she told him to have a child w/ Hagar, their servant Abraham had two sons- Ishmael w/ Hagar and Isaac w/ Sarah
Abraham’s family tree Hagar – Abraham - Sarah Ishmael Who is Abraham’s rightful heir? Isaac
Isaac and Ishmael God promised Abraham and his family all the land between the Nile and the Euphrates Rivers Arabs claim their ancestry to Ishmael Jews claim their ancestry to Isaac This is one of the reasons for the Arab – Israeli conflict
Moses 10 Commandments A strict God who demands obedience God as father, protector of his family The dignity of man as opposed to slaves of God These were new concepts
Terms Torah – the old testament, Holy Book of the Jews Rabbi – religious teacher Talmud – interpretations of the Torah, writings on the Torah
Christianity + Jesus Jesus was born a Jew in Bethlehem Crucified by the Romans, considered a threat to Rome, a dissident Preached about God’s love for the world and the need for people to love one another
Christians, unlike Jews and Muslims, believe Jesus was the son of God.
Terms Bible – holy book of Christians, includes Old and New Testament Denomination – different kinds of Christians (i.e. Lutheran, Catholic, Baptist etc.)
Mohammed – founder of Islam In 622 Mohammed was driven from Mecca, he fled to Medina In Medina he was accepted as a prophet, (a messenger from God) He eventually returned to Mecca Within 100 yrs. Islam had spread through Arabia
Relationship to others… Jews + Christians are “people of the book” Moses and Jesus are honored as prophets Muslims believe theirs is the only true religion
Sunnis and Shiites 85% Sunni 15% Shiite Split was caused by a disagreement about who the caliph should be Caliph- successor to Muhammad, also known as an Imam. First chosen was Muhammad’s father-in- law, leaving out his bloodline and upsetting which group?
Differences Leadership: –Shiite – the imam is descended from Ali, Muhammad’s son in law, (who Muhammad declared would lead after him). Ali was assassinated and so was his son Hussein. (Hereditary leadership) –Sunnis do not believe their imams are divine and can be elected or come to power in other ways According to Shiite, humans have option either to obey God's rules, or disobey. The Sunni scholars on the other hand say that Allah is the Creator of all of our acts
Jihad As with any idea in religion the idea of jihad is open to interpretation Holy struggle is a more correct translation than holy war This could be interpreted as an inner- struggle to be a better Muslim Also could have a violent interpretation as well
Crusades- Military expedition to “rescue” Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks.
Crusader Someone who fights on behalf of a religious cause
1st Crusade In 1097 three armies of knights began the journey to take back the Holy Land They slaughtered Muslim men and women in Jerusalem
The Crusades were a turning point. They lead to extreme distrust between religious groups