Presentation on theme: "What is the spinal cord? The spinal cord is a bundle of nerve fibers and associated tissue that is enclosed in the spine. These fibers connect nearly."— Presentation transcript:
What is the spinal cord? The spinal cord is a bundle of nerve fibers and associated tissue that is enclosed in the spine. These fibers connect nearly all parts of the body to the brain which helps to form the central nervous system.
TYPES OF SPINAL CORD INJURIES Spinal cord injuries are classified using the American Spinal Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale. Which is based off the touch and pinprick sensations. As well as with key dermatome levels. Some things that can cause a spinal cord injury : Birth injuries Falls Motor Vehicle accidents Sports injuries Driving accidents Trampoline accidents Violence- such as a gunshot and stab wound
Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or dislocates your vertebrae. Most injuries don’t cut through the cord but instead cause damage when pieces of vertebrae tear into the cord tissue. Spinal cord injuries can be either complete or incomplete. With complete spinal cord injuries the cord is unable to Send signals below the level of the injury which results in Paralysis. With incomplete you may have some movement and sensations below the area of injury. These types of injuries are medical emergencies, because with immediate treatment it can reduce the long term effects.
Types of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries There are 4 types of incomplete spinal cord injuries they are: Anterior Cord syndrome Posterior Cord syndrome Central Cord syndrome Brown-Sequard Syndrome
ANTERIOR CORD SYNDROME Is usually the result of compression of the artery that runs along the front of the spinal cord. Patients usually have complete loss of strength below the level of injury. Generally with anterior cord syndrome sensitivity to pain and temperature are lost while sensitivity to vibrations are preserved. There is only a 10-15 % chance of functional recovery after the first 24 hours.
POSTERIOR CORD SYNDROME Due to the loss of vibration and position sense below a lesion of the posterior spinal cord. May have tingling in the affected regions, sensory ataxia, hypotonia and preserved pain and temperature sense.
CENTRAL CORD SYNDROME Central cord syndrome is characterized by impairment in the arms and hands, and to a lesser extent in the legs. The signals from the brain are affected but not entirely blocked a result of trauma is associated with damage to the large nerve fibers that carry information directly from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. Loss of bladder control may also occur. Type of functional loss dependent on how severely the nerves are damaged.
BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME Is a rare neurological condition characterized by a lesion in the spinal cord which results in weakness or paralysis, On one side of the body and a loss of sensation on the opposite side. Caused by a spinal cord tumor, trauma, or infections or inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis or multiple sclerosis.
Spinal Cord injuries are not the same as a back injury. A back injury may involve pinched nerves or ruptured disks. Spinal cord injuries can result from falls or diseases such as polio or spina bifida which is a disorder involving the incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord, and their protective coverings. Some ways you can receive a spinal cord injury is through a motor vehicle accidents, assaults, sports injuries, industrial accidents among other causes.
5 CLASSIFICATIONS OF SPINAL INJURIES The five classes are class A through E Class A: No motor or sensory function in the sacral segments s4-s5 Class B: An Incomplete where there is sensory but not motor function is preserved below neurological level. Class C: Also an incomplete spinal cord injury where there is motor function and more then half of key muscles still have active movement with full range of motion against gravity. Class D: Also incomplete where there is motor function and ½ key muscles have a grade of 3 or more. Class E: Normal where you have both motor and sensory function