3 TRANSITIONAL WORDSTransition words and phrases help make clear connections between ideas and see that sentences and paragraphs flow together smoothly, making them easier to read.Transitional words are words that are used to add, compare, contrast, exemplify, summarize, and put the words in sequence.
4 FEATURES OF TRANSITIONAL WORDS Transition signals are connecting words or phrases that act like bridges between parts of your writing.Transition signals act like signposts to indicate to the reader the order and flow of your writing and ideas.They strengthen the internal cohesion of your writing. Using transitions makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas.They help carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, or from one idea to another.
5 FUNCTIONS OF TRANSITIONAL WORDS? ExampleApples and oranges are types of fruit.Not only fast cars but also slow trucks make up highway traffic.Henri stopped writing so that he could listen to his friend.FUNCTIONS OF TRANSITIONAL WORDS?Transitions function to connect words, phrases, and clauses.
6 TRANSITION, ADD, COMPARE AND CONTRAST ExampleAdditionWe also visited Miami Beach.2. ComparisonWe like them have to study.3. ContrastInstead of riding, they walked.TRANSITION, ADD, COMPARE AND CONTRASTThere are some transitional words that are used to compare and contrast a sentence.Some words are used additionally in sentences.
7 TRANSITION FOR SUMMARY AND SEQUENCE? ExampleExample:To illustrate, I will tell a story.Summary:In sum, you must try hard.Time Sequence:At last, she said yes.TRANSITION FOR SUMMARY AND SEQUENCE?There are some different set of words that are used to explain the transition for a summary, an example and time sequence.
8 TRANSITION FOR ADDITION Common WordsAndAlsoBesidesTooFirstNextLastPower TermsMoreoverFurthermoreIn Addition
9 TRANSITION FOR COMPARISON Simple OnesAlsoTooComplex OnesIn the same wayLikewiseSimilarly
10 TRANSITION FOR CONTRAST Simple Contrast Complex ContrastAlthough ButAt the same time YetDespite that StillIn contrast Even soIn spite of InsteadNevertheless OtherwiseNotwithstanding RegardlessOn the other hand
11 TRANSITION FOR EXAMPLE Simple Example Complex ExampleFor example As an illustrationFor instance In other wordsIndeed In shortIn fact That isOf course To illustrate
12 TRANSITION FOR SUMMARY Simple OnesAltogetherFinallyComplex OnesIn briefIn conclusionIn other wordsIn particularIn shortIn summaryOn the wholeThat is
13 ACTIVITY 1Answer the following questions and write the transition words that helped you make yourdecision1.If you can’t get rid of a cold, the flu, or a nagging sore throat, the reason may be your toothbrush. 2. Studies at the University of Oklahoma Dental School have shown that your old toothbrush may carry the germs that are causing your illness. 3. The studies have found that people who change their toothbrushes about every two weeks recover from common winter ills faster that people who use their toothbrushes for a month or more. 4. Old toothbrushes can culture the germs that can cause colds, influenza, pneumonia, strep throat,diarrhea, and sinus disease. 5. Another study found that disease germs can live in an unused toothbrush for as long as a week. 6. They can start to thrive again every time you brush your teeth.
14 ACTIVITY 1Answer the following questions and write the transition words that helped you make yourdecision1.The relationship between the two parts of sentence 1 is one ofa. time c. cause and effect.b. addition d. contrast.2. The relationship of sentence 5 to the previous sentence is one ofa. addition c. time.b. comparison d. contrast.
15 Transition words are: If , another. ANSWER TO ACTIVITY 1Answer the following questions and write the transition words that helped you make yourDecisionTransition words are: If , another.The relationship between the two parts of sentence is one ofa. time b. cause and effect.c. addition d. contrast.The relationship of sentence 5 to the previous sentence is one ofa. addition c. time.b. comparison d. contrast.
16 WHAT ARE TENSES? Example: The Present Tense The Past Tense The Future TenseWHAT ARE TENSES?Verb tense expresses the time of an event or action. Time and how it is expressed in writing is very important to English readers. The English language has twelve different tenses.
17 THE SIX ENGLISH TENSES Three Simple Tenses Simple continuous Present – You walk You are walkingI run I am running.Past – You Walked You were walking.I ran I was running.Future – You will walk You will be walking.I will run I will be running.
18 THE SIX ENGLISH TENSES Three Perfect Tenses Perfect continuous Present perfectyou have walked.I have run you have been walking.I have been running.Past PerfectYou had walked.I had run You had been walking.I had been running.Future PerfectYou will have walkedI will have run You will have been walking.I will have been running.
19 This tense also expresses general truths or facts that are timeless. Example1. She goes to work everyday.2. They always eat lunch together.3. Snow falls in the December in Minnesota.4. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE?Expresses a habit or often repeated action. Adverbs of frequency such as, often, seldom, sometimes, never, etc. are used with this tense.This tense also expresses general truths or facts that are timeless.
20 PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE ExampleShe is typing a paper for her class.He can’t talk. He is fixing the sink right now.PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSEadjectivesThis tense is used to describe an action that is occurring right now (at this moment, today, this year, etc.). The action has begun and is still in progress. It can be occurring now, but is temporary
21 THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE Example I visited my sister yesterday.We went out to dinner last night.THE SIMPLE PAST TENSEThe passive voice requires a "double verb" and will always consist of a form of the verb "to be" and the past participle (usually the "en/ed/t" form) of another verb.
22 THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE ExampleI was taking a bath when the doorbell rang.They were eating dinner when the neighbors stopped by for a visit.THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSEThe past continuous is often used with the simple past to show that one action was in progress when another action occurred.
23 THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE ExampleI was studying for an exam while my mother was cooking dinner.We were walking in the park around 7 p.m. last night.THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSEThe past continuous is used to talk about an activity that was in progress at a specific point of time in the past. The emphasis is on the duration of the activity in the past.
24 THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ExampleHe has lived in Modesto for two years.(He began living in Modesto two years ago and he still lives there.)THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSEThe present perfect is used to talk about an event that began in the past and continues up to the present.
25 THE PAST PERFECT TENSE Example The Titanic had received many warnings before it hit the iceberg.I had already eaten when my friend stopped by to visit.THE PAST PERFECT TENSEThis tense describes completed events that took place in the past before another past event.
26 THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ExampleShe had been driving around the city for three hours before she finally found the right office.THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSEThis tense is used to emphasize the duration of an action that was completed before another action or event in the past.
27 THE FUTURE TENSE Example She is meeting a new client at eleven o’clock.The train leaves at 6:00 a.m. tomorrow.THE FUTURE TENSEThe simple present and present continuous are also used to express future time. These are often used used in connection with schedules.
28 THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE ExampleWe will have finished the exam by the time class ends tomorrow.THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSEThis tense is used to describe an event or action that will be completed before another event or time in the future..
29 THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ExampleBy the time he finishes law school, we will have been living in the U.S. for eight years.THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSEThis tense describes an action that has been in progress for a duration of time before another event or time in the future.
30 Fill in with the right tenses: ACTIVITY 1Fill in with the right tenses:1. Hi, I ________(be) Matt Rotell, a friend of Alice's. 2. Oh, yes. Alice _______(mention) you the other day. Gee, you _________(not look) like a detective. 3. Well, that's good, I ___________(guess). 4. I'm curious. Tell me, how you _______(decide) to become an undercover cop? 5. Well, when I ____(be) a kid, I _____(love) to read detective novels. By the time I _________(be) ten, I ____(read) every book in the Hardy Boys series. I ____(know) that I ___(want) to go into law enforcement.
31 ANSWERS TO ACTIVITY 11. am2. mentioned, don’t like3. guess4. did , decide5. was, loved, was, had read, knew, wanted.
32 Fill in with the right tenses: ACTIVITY 1Fill in with the right tenses:6. But according to Alice, you ____(attend) law school nowadays. 7. Right. I ___(get) married last month. I ___(not mind) being on the police force when I ____(be) single, but ever since I ___(meet) Nicole, my wife, I ___(want) to do something less dangerous. 8. I ____(understand). By the way, you ____(have) any luck yet with those counterfeiters? 9. Well, I _____(follow) them for more than a month now, but so far I ___(not be able to) catch them in the act. Sometimes I _____(worry) that by the time they're caught, I'll have my law degree and I'll be defending them!
33 7. got, didn’t mind, was, met, have wanted 8. understand, have, had ANSWERS TO ACTIVITY 16. are attending, have been attending7. got, didn’t mind, was, met, have wanted8. understand, have, had9. have been following , haven’t been able to, worry
34 ACTIVITY 1 Change the sentences below to the active voice: 6. The building was damaged by the fire.7. By whom were you taught French?8. You will be given a ticket by the manager.9. The streets were thronged with spectators.10. We will be blamed by everyone.