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Space Exploration.

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Presentation on theme: "Space Exploration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Space Exploration

2 Russian (Soviet) Space Program
Over its sixty-year history the Soviet space program was responsible for a number of pioneering accomplishments in space flight, including: the first satellite (Sputnik -1) 1957

3 First living creature in space

4 First human in space and first earth orbit, cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Vosok 1 April 12 1961  

5 First woman in space – Valentina Tereshkova 1963

6 Other firsts -first spacewalk (cosmonaut Alexey Leonov on Voskhod 2), March 1965 -first Moon impact (Luna 2), -first image of the far side of the moon (Luna 3) and unmanned lunar soft landing (Luna 9), -first Space Station (MIR) 1986 to 2001 - first interplanetary probe to Venus.

7 American Space Program
Project Mercury Goals Initiated in 1958, completed in 1963, Project Mercury was the United States' first man-in-space program. The objectives of the program, which made six manned flights from 1961 to 1963, were specific: 1.To orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth 2. To investigate man's ability to function in space 3. To recover both man and spacecraft safely

8 Mercury, America's first human space flight program, introduced the nation to its first astronauts. There were six total flights with six astronauts flown. Total flight time for these missions was 53 hours, 55 minutes and 27 seconds.

9 Mercury-Redstone 3 Spacecraft: FREEDOM 7 Mission Date: May 5, 1961 Astronaut: Alan B. Shepard Flight Summary: 15 minutes, 28 seconds - Suborbital flight that successfully put the first American in space.

10 Mercury-Redstone 4 Spacecraft: LIBERTY BELL 7 Mission Date: July 21, 1961 Astronaut: Virgil I. Grissom Flight Summary: 15 minutes, 37 seconds - Suborbital flight, successful flight but the spacecraft sank shortly after splashdown

11 Mercury-Atlas 6 Spacecraft: FRIENDSHIP 7 Mission Date:
Feb 20, 1962 Astronaut: John H. Glenn, Jr. Flight Summary: 4 hours, 55 minutes, 23 seconds - Three-orbit flight that placed the first American into orbit.

12 Mercury-Atlas 7 Spacecraft: AURORA 7 Mission Date: May 24, 1962 Astronaut: Scott M. Carpenter Flight Summary: 4 hours, 56 minutes, 5 seconds - Confirmed the success of the Mercury-Atlas 6 by duplicating the flight

13 Mercury-Atlas 8 Spacecraft: SIGMA 7 Mission Date: Oct 3, 1962 Astronaut: Walter M. Schirra Flight Summary: 9 hours, 13 minutes, 11 seconds - Six-orbit engineering test flight.

14 Mercury-Atlas 9 Spacecraft: FAITH 7 Mission Date: May 15-16, 1963
Astronaut:L. Gordon Cooper, Jr. Flight Summary: 34 hours, 19 minutes, 49 seconds - The last Mercury mission; completed 22 orbits to evaluate effects of one day in space.

15 Gemini missions: stepping stones to the Moon
The Gemini Program was a necessary intermediate step between Project Mercury and the Apollo Program, and had four objectives: 1) To subject astronauts to long duration flights- a requirement for projected later trips to the moon or deeper space; 2) to develop effective methods of rendezvous and docking with other orbiting vehicles, and to maneuver the docked vehicles in space; 3) to perfect methods of reentry and landing the spacecraft at a pre-selected land-landing point;   4) to gain additional information concerning the effects of weightlessness on crew members and to record the physiological reactions of crew members during long duration flights. 

16 Gemini 3 Mission Date: March 23, 1965 Astronauts: Gus Grissom, John Young Flight Summary: 4 hours, 52 minutes The mission's primary goal was to test the new, maneuverable Gemini spacecraft

17 Gemini 4 Mission Date: June 3, 1965
Astronauts: Ed White, James McDivitt Flight Summary: 4 hours, 52 minutes Ed White became the first American to make an extravehicular activity (EVA, or "space walk")

18 Gemini 5 Mission Date: August 21-29, 1965
Astronauts: Gordon Cooper, Pete Conrad Flight Summary: demonstrated the 8-day endurance necessary for an Apollo lunar mission with the first use of fuel cells to generate its electrical power

19 Gemini 6A Mission Date: December 15, 1965
Astronauts: Wally Schirra, Tom Stafford Flight Summary: Rendezvous with Gemini 7

20 Gemini 7 Mission Date: December 4, 1965 Astronauts:
Frank Borman, Jim Lovell Flight Summary: Rendezvous with Gemini 6A, 14 day endurance record

21 Gemini 8 Mission Date: March 16-17, 1966 Astronauts:
Neil Armstrong, David Scott Flight Summary: First space docking with unmanned space craft

22 Gemini 11 Mission Date: September 1966 Astronauts:
Pete Conrad and Richard Gordon Flight Summary: set a manned Earth orbital altitude record of nautical miles (1,369.0 km)

23 Gemini 12 Date: Nov 11, 1966 Astronauts: Jim Lovell and Buzz Aldrin
Flight Summary: Aldrin became the first space traveller to prove that useful work could be done outside a spacecraft without life-threatening exhaustion

24 Apollo missions Goals: · Establish the technology to exist in space.
· Achieve preeminence in space for the United States. · Carry out a program of scientific exploration of the Moon. · Develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment. New type of rocket Saturn V for lunar flights.

25 Apollo 1 Mission Date: Feb 1967 Astronauts: Grissom, White, Chaffee
Flight Summary: Never launched. A fire erupted in the command module during preflight tests, killing all three crew members.

26 Apollo 7 and 9 Apollo 7 and 9 Mission Date: 1967-1968
Flight Summary: Testing of all the components necessary for lunar orbit and landing.

27 Apollo 8 Date: Dec , 1968 Crew: Jim Lovell, Frank Borman, William Anders Flight summary: First orbit of the moon

28 Apollo 10 Mission Date: May 18 1969
Astronauts: Stafford, Cernan, Young Flight Summary: the dress rehearsal for the moon landing, orbited the moon

29 Apollo 11 Mission Date: July 16, 1969
Astronauts: Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins Flight Summary: First moon landing. Neil Armstrong first man on the moon.

30 Apollo 12 Mission Date: November 14 1969 Crew: Conrad, Gordon, Bean
Flight Summary: Moon landing

31 Apollo 13 Mission date April 11, 1970
Crew: Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert, Fred Haise Flight summary: Problem after launch. Oxygen tank explosion. Re-engineered materials on board to clean the air and ensure survival. Safely returned to earth.

32 Apollo 14-17 Further missions to the Moon
Dates: Jan 31, 1971 to Dec 7, 1972 Different landing sites, carts driven on moon, samples of rocks gathered.

33 Space shuttles Design a reusable space craft.
Launched by being strapped to rockets, lands on its own like an airplane. Transported from landing to launch site on the back of a 747. First launch: April 12, 1981 Final launch: July 21, 2011 Space shuttles: Columbia (28), Challenger(10), Discovery(39), Atlantis(33) and Endeavour(25)


35 Notable missions Two disasters
Challenger STS-51L : Jan 1986 cold at launch, O-rings leaked causing explosion 73 seconds into flight. All crew lost. Columbia STS-107: 2003 broke apart on re-entry. Damage to wing on launch from piece of foam. All crew lost.

36 Mission to Mars Planned launch in First humans to Mars. Multinational program. Would you go?

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