Presentation on theme: " * Testing for diseases/conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. * Aim is to detect birth defects * Multiple tests that can be done each."— Presentation transcript:
* Testing for diseases/conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. * Aim is to detect birth defects * Multiple tests that can be done each trimester of pregnancy
* Done previous of first trimester of pregnancy -Pregnancy Tests -Blood Tests Blood type and Rh factor of mother and child -Cervical Tests STDs, cancer, and Group B Streptococcus infection -Maternal Blood Testing -Ultrasounds
* 1963 study done on early Egyptian Theory of the 1350s BC (determining pregnancy and sex of child) - Urinating on wheat and barley seeds - * Growth of wheat= female child - * Growth of barley= male child ** First record of prenatal testing (70% accurate)
* Woman 35 years of age * Previously had premature babies or w/birth defects * Woman with high blood pressure, lupus, diabetes, asthma, epilepsy * Family histories or ethnic backgrounds prone to genetic disorders * Pregnant w/twins or more * Have previously had miscarriages
States if the fetus is healthy or not But is unable to pinpointing any abnormalities in the fetus Test the mother’s blood and an ultrasound is performed Can lead into further testing throughout the pregnancy
Chorionic Villus Sampling “CVS” Detects chromosome abnormalties or genetic disorders - * Collects chorionic villi cells by a catheter guided by an ultrasound through the cervic or abdomen to the placenta
* One of the first prenatal test to develop- mid 1950s Needle is entered into amniotic sac to gather a sample of amniotic fluid Most widely known prenatal test which examines for certain chromosomal abnormalities and neural tube defects
Biophysical Profile (BPP) - Contains two parts: non stress test and an ultrasound - Non stress test involves attaching 2 belts around abdomen, measuring fetal heart rate and to measure contractions- - Evaluates heart rate, muscle tone, movement, and amount of amniotic fluid - Physicians suggest in the third trimester BPP to be done once every week until child is born
Gestational Diabetes- diabetes brought on from pregnancy which causes risk to both mother and baby 26-28 weeks, evaluates how the body processes sugar Positive test= body is not able to break down sugar properly, blood is drawn one hour after having a glucose drink If positive, Glucose tolerance Test is taken
* Type of bacteria that can be found in up to 40% of pregnant woman. *Taken 35-37 weeks of pregnancy with a swab from the vagina *If positive the mother can be treated with antibiotics during labor * Woman with GBS infection can pass the bacteria to her newborn during delivery - most babies do not have problems and rarely become sick
* Misscarriage * cramping and vaginal bleeding * slowing of the fetus heart rate * Infection Rh Sensitizationj Needle injury to fetus Leaking of amniotic fluid CVS and Amniocentesis Testing
* How much value do you place on outcome of the result? Is it going to lead to abortion? Will the results affect the prenatal care of the fetus?
Time to prepare for the emotional and psychological expectations of a child with abnormalities. Time to arrange proper medical care if need be Can detect complications that could be treated or stop further complications from occurring. For example: PUBS can detect if fetus is anemic and if in need of a blood transfusion
Negative results may result in the pressure to consider abortion of the child because of misconceptions and stereotype of people with disabilities Many of the disabilities of those impaired at birth are not genetically determined. Prenatal testing gives no indication of how severe a child will be affected. In fact, more than 80% of disabled people are not born with their impairment but obtain it later
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