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Newton’s First & Second Law AP Physics C

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Unit is the Newton(N) or pound (lb) Is by definition a ….. push or a pull Can exist during physical contact (Tension, Friction, Applied Force) Can exist with NO physical contact called Fundamental Forces (gravitational, electric, nuclear FIELDS)

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INERTIA – the more of it you have, the harder it is to get you moving. Modern definition: a quantity of matter, also called … MASS. Unit for MASS = kilogram. NOTE: MASS and WEIGHT are NOT the same thing. MASS never changes when an object moves to a different planet. Weight is a force due to Gravity. It is how your MASS is effected by gravity. What is the weight of an 85.3-kg person on earth? On Mars=3.2 m/s/s)? Inerte in Galileo’s Italian meant “lazy”

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An object in motion remains in motion in a straight line and at a constant speed OR an object at rest remains at rest, UNLESS acted upon by an EXTERNAL (unbalanced) force. The bottom line: There is NO ACCELERATION (no change in velocity) unless a force acts, but you can have MOTION even if there is NO force acting. “Common sense” told us the opposite for generations, so inertia was a real intellectual breakthrough. EQUILIBRIUM is when there are either NO FORCES acting or those that are acting all cancel each other out.

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A pictorial representation of forces complete with labels. W 1,Fg 1 or m 1 g Weight(mg) – Always drawn from the center, straight down Force Normal(F N ) – A surface force always drawn perpendicular to a surface. Tension(T or F T ) – force in ropes and always drawn AWAY from object. Friction(Ff)- Always drawn opposing the motion. m2gm2g T T FNFN FfFf It helps if you first circle the object you are analyzing, and labe only the forces acting ON IT. Other than gravity, these forces must involve physical contact.

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mg FNFN FfFf

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Since the F net = 0, a system moving at a constant speed or at rest MUST be at EQUILIBRIUM. TIPS for solving problems Draw a FBD Resolve anything at angles into COMPONENTS Write equations of equilibrium Solve for unknowns

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A 10-kg box is being pulled across the table to the right at a constant speed with a force of 50N. a) Calculate the Force of Friction b) Calculate the Force Normal mg FNFN FaFa FfFf

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Suppose the same box is now pulled at an angle of 30 degrees above the horizontal. a) Calculate the Force of Friction b) Calculate the Force Normal mg FNFN FaFa FfFf 30 F ax F ay

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If an object is NOT at rest or moving at a constant speed, that means the FORCES are UNBALANCED. One force(s) in a certain direction overpowers the others. THEN THE OBJECT WILL….. ACCELERATE.

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The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the NET FORCE and inversely proportional to the mass. Tips: Draw an FBD Resolve vectors into components Write equations of motion by adding and subtracting vectors to find the NET FORCE. Always write larger force – smaller force. Solve for any unknowns

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A 10-kg box is being pulled across the table to the right by a rope with an applied force of 50N. Calculate the acceleration of the box if a 12 N frictional force acts upon it. mg FNFN FaFa FfFf In which direction, is this object accelerating? The X direction! So N.S.L. is worked out using the forces in the “x” direction only

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m1gm1g m2gm2g T T FNFN A mass, m 1 = 3.00kg, is resting on a frictionless horizontal table is connected to a cable that passes over a pulley and then is fastened to a hanging mass, m 2 = 11.0 kg as shown below. Find the acceleration of each mass and the tension in the cable.

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Where does the calculus fit in? First derivative Second derivative DON’T WORRY ABOUT THE STUFF ON THIS SLIDE OR THE NEXT FOR NOW.

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Where does the calculus fit in? There could be situations where you are given a displacement function or velocity function. The derivative will need to be taken once or twice in order to get the acceleration. Here is an example. You are standing on a bathroom scale in an elevator in a tall building. Your mass is 72-kg. The elevator starts from rest and travels upward with a speed that varies with time according to: When t = 4.0s, what is the reading on the bathroom scale (a.k.a. Force Normal)? 4.6 m/s/s 1036.8 N DON’T WORRY ABOUT THE STUFF ON THIS SLIDE UNTIL NOVEMBER

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m1gm1g m2gm2g T T FNFN A mass, m 1 = 3.00kg, is resting on a frictionless horizontal table is connected to a cable that passes over a pulley and then is fastened to a hanging mass, m 2 = 11.0 kg as shown below. Find the acceleration of each mass and the tension in the cable.

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