2 why study learning? If we had not been able to learn, we would have died out as a species long ago. Learning is the process that allows us to adapt to the changing conditions of the world around us. We can alter our actions until we find the behavior that leads us to survival and rewards, and we can eliminate actions that have been unsuccessful in the past. Without learning, there would be no buildings, no agriculture, no lifesaving medicines, and no human civilization.
3 Learning Objectives LO 4.1 Learning LO 4.2 Classical conditioning LO 4.3 Conditioned emotional responseLO 4.4 Operant conditioning: Thorndike and SkinnerLO 4.5 Important concepts in operant conditioningLO 4.6 Schedules of reinforcementLO 4.7 How does punishment differ from reinforcement?LO 4.8 Problems associated with the use of punishmentLO 4.9 Factors limiting or enhancing operant conditioningLO 4.10 Behavioral Techniques and Behavior ModificationLO 4.11 Cognitive learning theoryLO 4.12 Observational learningLO 4.13 Real world example of use of conditioning
4 What is Learning? Learning Relatively permanent change in behavior LO 5.1 LearningLearningRelatively permanent change in behaviorBrain physically changes in response to learningBrought about by experience or practiceAny kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning
5 Pavlov and Classical Conditioning LO 5.2 Classical conditioningIvan PavlovRussian physiologistStudied digestion in dogsDogs naturally salivate in response to food (reflex)Pavlov’s dogs salivated in response to other stimuli as well
6 Pavlov and Classical Conditioning LO 5.2 Classical conditioningIvan PavlovLabeled classical conditioningLearning response to a stimulus other than the originalNew response does not naturally occur in response to the stimulus, is learned
7 Dr. Ivan Pavlov and students working in his laboratory Dr. Ivan Pavlov and students working in his laboratory. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, was the first to study and write about the basic principles of classical conditioning.
8 Classical Conditioning Concepts LO 5.2 Classical conditioningUnconditioned stimulus (UCS)Naturally occurring stimulusLeads to an involuntary responseUnconditioned:“Unlearned” or “naturally occurring”Unconditioned response (UCR)Involuntary response to naturally occurring stimulus
9 Classical Conditioning Concepts LO 5.2 Classical conditioningConditioned stimulus (CS)Stimulus is able to produce learned reflex responsePaired with the original unconditioned stimulusConditioned = “learned”Neutral stimulusBecomes conditioned stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus
10 Classical Conditioning Concepts LO 5.2 Classical conditioningConditioned response (CR)Learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus.Sometimes called conditioned reflex
11 Figure Classical Conditioning Before conditioning takes place, the sound of the metronome does not cause salivation and is a neutral stimulus, or NS. During conditioning, the sound of the metronome occurs just before the presentation of the food, the UCS. The food causes salivation, the UCR. When conditioning has occurred after several pairings of the metronome with the food, the metronome will begin to elicit a salivation response from the dog without any food. This is learning, and the sound of the metronome is now a CS and the salivation to the bell is the CR.
12 Classical Conditioning Principles LO 5.2 Classical conditioningCS must come before UCSCS and UCS must come very close together in timeIdeally, only several seconds apartNeutral stimulus must be paired repeatedly with UCS before conditioning takes placeCS is usually a stimulus that is distinctive from other competing stimuli
13 Could this be you? The anxiety that many people feel while in the dentist’s office is a conditioned response, with the dentist’s chair and the smells of the office acting as conditioned stimuli.
14 Classical Conditioning Concepts LO 5.2 Classical conditioningStimulus generalizationRespond to a stimulus similar to original conditioned stimulus with conditioned responseStimulus discriminationNot making a generalized response to similar stimulusSimilar stimulus was never paired with the unconditioned stimulus
15 Classical Conditioning Concepts LO 5.2 Classical conditioningExtinctionDisappearance/weakening of learned responseFollows removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (classical conditioning)Removal of reinforcer (operant conditioning)
16 Figure Strength of the Generalized Response An example of stimulus generalization. The UCS was an electric shock and the UCR was the galvanic skin response (GSR), a measure associated with anxiety. The subjects had been conditioned originally to a CS tone (0) of a given frequency. When tested with the original tone, and with tones 1, 2, and 3 of differing frequencies, a clear generalization effect appeared. The closer the frequency of the test tone to the frequency of tone 0, the greater was the magnitude of the galvanic skin response to the tone (Hovland, 1937).
17 Classical Conditioning Concepts LO 5.2 Classical conditioningSpontaneous recoveryReappearance of learned response after extinctionResponse usually weak and short-livedHigher-order conditioningStrong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulusNeutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus
18 Figure Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery This graph shows the acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, and reacquisition of a conditioned salivary response. Typically, the measure of conditioning is the number of drops of saliva elicited by the CS on each trial. Note that on the day following extinction, the first presentation of the CS elicits quite a large response.
19 Figure Higher-Order Conditioning In Stage 1, a strong salivation response is conditioned to occur to the sound of the metronome (CS1). In Stage 2, finger snapping (CS2) is repeatedly paired with the ticking of the metronome (CS1) until the dog begins to salivate to the finger snapping alone. This is called “higher-order conditioning,” because one CS is used to create another, “higher” CS.
20 Conditioned Emotional Response LO 5.3 Conditioned emotional responseEmotional response classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuliExamples:Fear of dogsEmotional reaction to seeing an attractive person, baby animals, etc.May lead to phobias – irrational fear responses
21 Conditioned Emotional Response LO 5.3 Conditioned emotional responseVicarious conditioningClassical conditioning acquired by watching the reaction of another person
22 Figure Conditioning of “Little Albert” After “Little Albert” had been conditioned to fear a white rat, he also demonstrated fear to a rabbit, a dog, and a sealskin coat (although it remains uncertain if stimulus generalization actually occurred as this fear was to a single rabbit, a single dog, etc.). Can you think of any emotional reactions you experience that might be classically conditioned emotional responses?
23 LO 5.3 Conditioned emotional response Taste AversionLO 5.3 Conditioned emotional responseConditioned taste aversionNausea or aversive response to a particular tasteExposure to taste was followed by a aversive reaction
24 LO 5.3 Conditioned emotional response Taste AversionLO 5.3 Conditioned emotional responseConditioned taste aversionOccurs after only one associationBiological preparednessAnimals learn associations with only one or few pairingsSurvival value as animal could die with multiple tastings
25 Conditioned taste aversions in nature Conditioned taste aversions in nature. This moth is not poisonous to birds, but the monarch butterfly whose coloring the moth imitates is quite poisonous. Birds find their food by vision and will not eat anything that resembles the monarch.
26 Why Classical Conditioning Works LO 5.3 Conditioned emotional responseStimulus substitutionPavlov’s explanationConditioned stimulus (CS) becomes substitute for unconditioned stimulus (UCS) due to close pairing of twoCognitive perspectiveConditioning occurs because CS provides information or expectancy about UCS forthcoming
27 LO 5.4 Operant conditioning: Thorndike and Skinner Involves voluntary behaviorLearned through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses
28 LO 5.4 Operant conditioning: Thorndike and Skinner Thorndike’s Law of EffectIf a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will be repeatedIf followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated
29 Skinner’s Contribution LO 5.4 Operant conditioning: Thorndike and SkinnerStressed the study of only observable, measurable behavior.Operant conditioningVoluntary behavior used to operate on the environmentFocus on the effects of the consequences of behavior
30 Figure A Typical Skinner Box This rat is learning to press the bar in the wall of the cage in order to get food (delivered a few pellets at a time in the food trough on lower left). In some cases, the light on the top left might be turned on to indicate that pressing the bar will lead to food or to warn of an impending shock delivered by the grate on the floor of the cage.
31 LO 5.5 Important concepts in operant conditioning ReinforcementLO 5.5 Important concepts in operant conditioningReinforcementEvent or stimulus following a response that increases the probability the response will occur againPrimary reinforcerReinforcer that meets a basic biological needhunger, thirst, touch
32 LO 5.5 Important concepts in operant conditioning ReinforcementLO 5.5 Important concepts in operant conditioningReinforcementSecondary reinforcerReinforcer associated with a primary reinforcerpraise, tokens, gold stars
33 Positive and Negative Reinforcement LO 5.5 Important concepts in operant conditioningPositive reinforcementPleasurable consequence follows responseNegative reinforcementRemoval of unpleasant stimulus increases responseEscape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.
35 Schedules of Reinforcement LO 5.6 Schedules of reinforcementPartial reinforcement effectResponse is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responsesResponse tends to be resistant to extinctionContinuous reinforcementReinforcement of each and every correct response
36 Schedules of Reinforcement LO 5.6 Schedules of reinforcementFixed ratio scheduleNumber of responses required for reinforcement is always the sameVariable interval scheduleInterval of time must pass before reinforcement becomes possibleAmount of time different for each trial or event.
37 When people go fishing, they never know how long they may have to dangle the bait in the water before snagging a fish. This is an example of a variable interval schedule of reinforcement and explains why some people, such as this father and son, are reluctant to pack up and go home.
38 Schedules of Reinforcement LO 5.6 Schedules of reinforcementFixed interval scheduleInterval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possibleAmount of time passing is always the sameVariable ratio scheduleNumber of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event.
39 Slot machines provide reinforcement in the form of money on a variable ratio schedule, making the use of these machines very addictive for many people. People don’t want to stop for fear the next pull of the lever will be that “magic” one that produces a jackpot.
40 Figure Schedules of Reinforcement These four graphs show the typical pattern of responding for both fixed and variable interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement. The responses are cumulative, which means new responses are added to those that come before, and all graphs begin after the learned pattern is well established. Slash marks mean that a reinforcement has been given. In both the fixed interval and fixed ratio graphs, there is a pause after each reinforcement as the learner briefly “rests.” The “scalloped” shape of the fixed interval curve is a typical indicator of this pause, as is the stair-step shape of the fixed ratio curve. In the variable interval and ratio schedules, no such pause occurs, because the reinforcements are unpredictable. Notice that both fixed and variable interval schedules are slower (less steep) than the two ratio schedules because of the need to respond as quickly as possible in the ratio schedules.
41 LO 5.7 How does punishment differ from reinforcement Follows a response, making it less likely the response will happen againIs the opposite of reinforcementPunishment weakens responses, reinforcement strengthens responses
42 LO 5.7 How does punishment differ from reinforcement Is the opposite of reinforcementPunishment by applicationThe addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus following a responsePunishment by removalRemoval of a pleasurable stimulus
43 This young man’s father is applying punishment by removal as he takes the car keys away from his son.
44 Table 4.3 Negative Reinforcement Versus Punishment by Removal
45 Problems with Punishment LO 5.8 What are some problems with punishmentMay cause punished to avoid the punisher instead of the behavior being punishedWrong response is learnedCan encourage lying to avoid punishment
46 Problems with Punishment LO 5.8 What are some problems with punishmentMay create fear and anxietyEmotions not conducive to learningHitting provides model for aggressionBehavior is being modeled by the punisher
47 How to Make Punishment More Effective LO 5.8 What are some problems with punishmentPunishment should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish.Punishment should be consistent.Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior.
48 LO 5.9 How operant stimuli control behavior Stimulus ControlLO 5.9 How operant stimuli control behaviorDiscriminative stimulusProvides organism a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
49 Operant Conditioning Concepts LO 5.9 How operant stimuli control behaviorShapingSmall steps toward goal behavior are reinforced until goal behavior is metSuccessive approximationsThe steps in behavior leading to a particular goal behavior
50 This dog has been trained to help its physically challenged owner This dog has been trained to help its physically challenged owner. Operant conditioning principles can be used to train animals to do many useful tasks, including opening the refrigerator.
51 Operant Conditioning Concepts LO 5.9 How operant stimuli control behaviorExtinctionRemoval of reinforcementResponse drops outGeneralizationResponse occurs with stimuli only similar to the original stimulus
52 One way to deal with a child’s temper tantrum is to ignore it One way to deal with a child’s temper tantrum is to ignore it. The lack of reinforcement for the tantrum behavior will eventually result in extinction.
53 Operant Conditioning Concepts LO 5.9 How operant stimuli control behaviorSpontaneous recoveryReoccurrence of a once extinguished responseSame as with classical conditioning
54 Behavior Resistant to Conditioning LO 5.9 How operant stimuli control behaviorInstinctive driftTendency for an animal’s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns after learningAnimals have genetically determined instinctive patterns of behaviorThese instincts differ from species to species.Some responses cannot be trained into an animal regardless of conditioning.
55 Raccoons commonly dunk their food in and out of water before eating Raccoons commonly dunk their food in and out of water before eating. This “washing” behavior is controlled by instinct and is difficult to change even using operant techniques.
56 Applying Operant Conditioning LO 5.10 Behavior modificationBehavior modificationUse of conditioning techniques to create changes in behaviorToken economyDesired behavior is rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for desired items or privileges
57 Applying Operant Conditioning LO 5.10 Behavior modificationTime-outOrganism is being “removed” from opportunity to obtain positive reinforcementApplied behavior analysis (ABA)Uses shaping-skills broken into small stepsPrompts are removed over time
58 Biofeedback and Neurofeedback LO 5.10 Behavior modificationBiofeedbackUse of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses under voluntary controlI.E.: blood pressure, heart rateNeurofeedbackForm of biofeedbackUses brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity
59 Cognitive Learning Theory LO 5.11 Cognitive learning theory1950s and 1960’s interest in cognitionMental events that take place inside a person’s mind while behavingView began to dominate experimental psychologyKey theorists:Tolman, Kohler and Seligman
60 LO 5.11 Cognitive learning theory Latent LearningLO 5.11 Cognitive learning theoryEdward Tolman (1930)Taught three groups of rats the same mazeGroup 1Rewarded each time at end of mazeLearned maze quickly
61 LO 5.11 Cognitive learning theory Latent LearningLO 5.11 Cognitive learning theoryTaught three groups of rats the same mazeGroup 2In maze every day; only rewarded on 10th dayDemonstrated learning almost immediately after receiving reward
62 LO 5.11 Cognitive learning theory Latent LearningLO 5.11 Cognitive learning theoryTaught three groups of rats the same mazeGroup 3Never rewardedDid not learn maze wellLatent learningLearning remains hidden until application is useful
63 Figure A Typical Maze This is an example of a maze such as the one used in Tolman’s experiments in latent learning. A rat is placed in the start box. The trial is over when the rat gets to the end box.
64 Figure Learning Curves for Three Groups of Rats In the results of the classic study of latent learning, Group 1 was rewarded on each day, while Group 2 was rewarded for the first time on Day 11. Group 3 was never rewarded. Note the immediate change in the behavior of Group 2 on Day 12 (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).
65 LO 5.11 Cognitive learning theory InsightLO 5.11 Cognitive learning theoryKohler (1925)Sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problemAllows solution to problem to come quicklyCannot be gained through trial-and-error learning alone“Aha” moment
66 Another of Köhler’s chimpanzees, Grande, has just solved the problem of how to get to the banana by stacking boxes. Does this meet the criteria for insight, or was it simple trial-and-error learning?
67 LO 5.11 Cognitive learning theory Learned HelplessnessLO 5.11 Cognitive learning theoryMartin Seligman (1975)Studied escape and avoidance learningNoted dogs who had been unable to avoid shock did not avoid shock when opportunity became available
68 LO 5.11 Cognitive learning theory Learned HelplessnessLO 5.11 Cognitive learning theoryMartin Seligman (1975)Described learned helplessness as the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situationHistory of repeated failures in the past creates belief that nothing can be doneDepression may result from learned helplessness
69 Figure Seligman’s Apparatus In Seligman’s studies of learned helplessness, dogs were placed in a two-sided box. Dogs that had no prior experience with being unable to escape a shock would quickly jump over the hurdle in the center of the box to land on the “safe” side. Dogs that had previously learned that escape was impossible would stay on the side of the box in which the shock occurred, not even trying to go over the hurdle.
70 Observational Learning LO 5.12 Observational learningLearning new behavior by watching a model perform the behaviorBandura (1961)Children observed and later spontaneously imitated observed aggressive behaviorLearning/performance distinctionLearning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior
71 Figure Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment In Albert Bandura’s famous Bobo doll experiment, the doll was used to demonstrate the impact of observing an adult model performing aggressive behavior on the later aggressive behavior of children. The children in these photos are imitating the adult model’s behavior even though they believe they are alone and are not being watched.
72 Four Elements of Observational Learning LO 5.12 Observational learningATTENTIONTo learn through observation learner must first attend to the modelMEMORYLearner must be able to retain memory of what was doneExample: remembering steps in preparing a dish seen on a cooking show
73 Four Elements of Observational Learning LO 5.12 Observational learningIMITATIONLearner must be capable of reproducing actions of the modelMOTIVATIONLearner must have the desire to perform the action
74 Applying Psychology to Everyday Life LO 5.13 Real world example use of conditioningToilet Training a CatUse operant principlesShapingTransition from litter box to toilet is done in stagesPrepare “the training arena”Optimizing bathroom successPositive reinforcement on a variable schedule
75 Misha’s first attempt without the box Misha’s first attempt without the box. He scored two out of a possible four.
76 Misha demonstrates proper squatting posture Misha demonstrates proper squatting posture. Note the look of firm concentration.