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Objectives Identify current priorities for health reform.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives Identify current priorities for health reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH): Building a Better Health Care Model

2 Objectives Identify current priorities for health reform.
Describe the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model of care. Understand how the PCMH model is an appropriate vehicle to address priority health reform issues. Understand Family Medicine’s role in the development and adoption of the Patient-Centered Medical Home.

3 Patients today are savvy consumers of health care and have higher expectations.
Communication Access Convenience Coordination Responsiveness Source: Medfusion, an AAFP affinity partner, 2008

4 Patient Expectations 75% want the ability to interact with their physician online (appointments, prescriptions, test results). 77% want to ask questions without a visit. 75% want access as part of their overall care. 62% of patients say access to these services would influence their choice of physicians. Source: Medfusion, an AAFP affinity partner, 2008

5 Family Medicine is leading the way to make health care more patient-centered.
“Will family medicine teachers prepare their students and residents to help practices transform and meet the infrastructure principles? I believe that we will, not simply because doing so will likely increase our financial situation but because building PCMHs that meet the care and infrastructure principles will improve the care we provide to meet our patients’ and our communities’ needs. We will build our PCMH practices, because it is the right thing to do and it reflects our core values.” John C. Rogers, MD, MPH, MEd Past-President, Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Fam Med 2008;40(1):11-2.)

6 Health Care Reform Priorities for US health care reform include:
Quality WHO (World Health Organization) identifies the US health care system as the “most individually responsive” WHO ranks US health care 37th overall (among 191 countries) Efficiency People with acute and chronic medical conditions receive only about two-thirds of the health care that they need. Between 20 and 30% of tests and procedures provided to patients are neither needed nor beneficial. *Leatherman and McCarthy, Quality of Health Care in the United States: A Chartbook, The Commonwealth Fund *Schuster, McGlynn, and Brook, 1998

7 Health Care Reform Priorities for US health care reform include: Cost
The U.S. spends more on health care per capita than any other nation. The U.S. spends more on health care as a proportion of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) than any other nation. Patient-friendly Public confidence in hospitals and personal doctors remains relatively high. While individuals report generally positive experience with medical care, public confidence and trust in the system at large is eroding. *Leatherman and McCarthy, Quality of Health Care in the United States: A Chartbook, The Commonwealth Fund

8 Health Care Reform Priorities for US health care reform include:
Access Lack of insurance is a major reason for not obtaining access to needed care. The 40 million Americans without insurance coverage are less likely to obtain needed medical care and preventive tests Even with insurance, barriers to care still exist: Lack of an established relationship with a doctor Language barriers Cultural barriers Transportation issues Geography Automation Infrastructure for health care delivery has not kept pace with the electronic innovations of other industries. Many institutions still rely on systems that are not automated and allow opportunities for human error, even though technology exists to minimize errors and improve efficiency.

9 An effective and efficient health care system is a primary care-based health care system
Provides access to basic health care services Manages health disparities Coordinates care Controls cost Offers sustainability

10 Innovative Solution: History of the PCMH Concept
Introduced by American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) in 1967 Initially referred to a central location for medical records The medical home concept was expanded in 2002 to include: Accessible Continuous Comprehensive Family-centered Coordinated Compassionate Culturally sensitive care In 2007, the AAP, the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), and the American College of Physicians (ACP) adopted a set of joint principles to describe a new level of primary care.

11 “Joint Principles” of the Patient-Centered Medical Home
A personal physician who coordinates all care for patients and leads the team. Physician-directed medical practice – a coordinated team of professionals who work together to care for patients. Whole person orientation – this approach is key to providing comprehensive care. Coordinated care that incorporates all components of the complex health care system. Quality and safety – medical practices voluntarily engage in quality improvement activities to ensure patient safety is always being met. Enhanced access to care – such as through open-access scheduling and communication mechanisms. Payment – a system of reimbursement reflective of the true value of coordinated care and innovation.

12 Growing Support for the Patient- Centered Medical Home
Partnerships are developing as more and more stakeholders see value in the Joint Principles. The Patient Centered Primary Care Collaborative (PCPCC) is a coalition of major employers, consumer groups, patient quality organizations, health plans, labor unions, hospitals, physicians and others to develop and advance PCMH. The PCPCC has well over 500 members. *

13 The Patient Centered Medical Home The Family Medicine Model
Great Outcomes Practice Organization Quality Measures Heath Information Technology Health IT Health IT Patient Experience Patient Experience Family Medicine Foundation Patient-centered | Physician-directed

14 Culture of Improvement Performance Measurement
Reliable Systems Starts with a culture of improvement Ensure quality improvement initiatives are not punitive; should not discourage physicians from caring for patients Quality measures should be based in strong clinical evidence You can’t improve what you don’t measure Develop reliable systems to collect information Quality Measures

15 Convenient Access Personalized Care Care Coordination
Patients want convenient access to information, communication, and care Patients want to access to care when they are ill Patients are engaged in their own care and want to share in decision-making Patients want increased ability to access information Patients want coordinated care Patients want new approaches to care: group visits and on-line services Quality Measures Patient Experience

16 Practice Organization
Financial Management Personnel Management Clinical Systems Lab testing Prescriptions Registries All staff are aware of the most effective ways to deliver care National policies support the investment of resources into primary care practices that are effective and efficient Every team member understands the important role they play in delivering efficient care and is empowered to make suggestions for improvement Lab testing Prescriptions Patient Registries Practice Organization Quality Measures Patient Experience

17 Clinical Data Analysis & Representation
Business & Clinical Process Automation Connectivity & Communication Evidence-Based Medicine Support Clinical Data Analysis & Representation Patient reminders Patient notification for new information Reminders for recommended care or health maintenance Makes patient registries possible Enhances care coordination by improving information flow with other physicians, practices, and providers Improves patient - physician communication Point-of-care learning (e.g., Up-to-Date) Clinical decision support (e.g., Epocrates) Can quickly pull clinical data for quality analysis Can enhance business processes Practice Organization Health Information Technology Quality Measures Patient Experience Family Medicine Foundation

18 Great Outcomes Good for patients Good for physicians
Patients enjoy better health. Patients share in health care decisions. Good for physicians Physicians focus on delivering excellent medical care. Good for practices Team works effectively together. Resources support the delivery of excellent patient care. Good for payors and employers Ensures quality and efficiency. Avoids unnecessary costs. Great Outcomes Practice Organization Quality Measures Health Information Technology Patient Experience Family Medicine Foundation

19 The Patient Centered Medical Home The Family Medicine Model
Great Outcomes Practice Organization Quality Measures Heath Information Technology Health IT Health IT Patient Experience Patient Experience Family Medicine Foundation Patient-centered | Physician-directed

20 The PCMH Model in Action: North Carolina Community Care Collaborative
Asthma and diabetes initiatives were developed due to high prevalence in the North Carolina Medicaid population. Care was coordinated by a primary care physician. Care included patient education and team collaboration. Initial goals focused on reducing unnecessary hospital admissions and emergency room visits. Additional quality, efficiency, and cost control elements were added later. The CCNC Asthma Program demonstrated cost-effectiveness. 34% lower hospital admission rate. 8% lower ED visit rate. Average ED “episode” cost for children was 24% lower. 21% increase in asthma patients who have been staged. 112% increase in asthmatic patients receiving flu shots. $3.5 million dollar savings

21 The PCMH Model in Action: North Carolina Community Care Collaborative
The CCNC diabetes initiative demonstrated improvement in process measures and implementation of evidence-based best practice guidelines. 7% increase in referrals for dilated eye exams. 23% increase in bi-annual foot exams. $2.1 million savings. Without any concerted efforts to control costs, the program overall saved $60 million in 2003, $124 million in 2004, and $231 million in 2005 and 2006. Almost $1 M in savings achieved during the first two quarters of 2005 just for prescription use.

22 The PCMH Model in Family Medicine Residency Training
“Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice” (P4) The P4 Initiative is designed to inspire and examine innovation in family medicine residency training.   Sponsors are the American Board of Family Medicine, the Association of Family Medicine Residency Directors, and TransforMED. Different approaches range from moving the continuity clinic into a new community setting, to expanding to a four-year program, to providing the opportunity for tracking and obtaining additional degrees while in training, and more.  The aim of P4 is to spur innovation in all family medicine residencies to best prepare family physicians be the excellent personal physicians of tomorrow. Initially, 84 Family Medicine residencies applied to participate in the P4 Initiative. The 14 P4 residencies were selected as participants for more intensive evaluation of outcomes to determine what works best. Findings are being shared with all residencies to inspire more innovations and change.

23 PCMH Model and Health Care Reform
Attempts to fix part of the problem without addressing it comprehensively will not lead to viable solutions. Advocacy by all stakeholders is necessary. Community projects through local hospitals and resource networks State projects for regional payors and state Medicaid programs National support for changing how care is delivered and for ensuring a prepared workforce to deliver care

24 Family Physicians and the PCMH
PCMH is a place, not a person. Patient-centered, Physician-directed. Family physicians Provide comprehensive care Care for all patients Coordinate care Provide care that is effective and efficient* Future of Family Medicine *Starfield data Great Outcomes Practice Organization Health Information Technology Quality Measures Patient Experience

25 Family Physicians How we provide care:
Acute injuries and illnesses Health promotion and behavior change Hospital care Chronic disease management Maternity care Well-child care and child development Primary mental health care Supportive and end-of-life care

26 Family Physicians How we view patients:
Consider all of the influences on a person’s health. Know and understand people’s limitations, problems, and personal beliefs when deciding on a treatment. Are appropriate and efficient in proposing therapies and interventions. Develop rewarding relationships with patients. Provide a continuous healing relationship over time.

27 Family Physicians Who we care for: Individuals and families
Women and men regardless of age or disease Infants, children, and adolescents regardless of disease Communities and public health Global health

28 Primary Care Delivers Better Health Outcomes
 mortality  morbidity  medication use per capita expenditures patient satisfaction greater equity in health care SOURCE: B. Starfield, et al., “The Effects of Specialist Supply on Populations’ Health,” Health Affairs (March 2005); W5-97

29 The Patient-Centered Medical Home as a Preferred Model of Care
Change is coming: Patients want more from the healthcare system and from their physician. Purchasers of insurance (individuals, employers, government) are looking for quality and value. Runaway healthcare costs must be addressed in ways that preserve and enhance access to high-quality, effective medical care. There are ways to do both!

30 Explore Family Medicine
Learn more about PCMH. ( Advocate for your patients. Think about the future of healthcare. Are you learning the skills today that you will need for the changing healthcare system? Visit Virtual FMIG. ( Join your local FMIG. Join the AAFP. ( Get involved at the state and national level.

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