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Module B This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Social Psychology Goes to Work: Applying Social Psychology to Work Settings and Entrepreneurship Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon
Social Psychology Goes to Work Work-Related Attitudes: The Nature and Effects of Job Satisfaction Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Prosocial Behavior at Work Leadership: Influence in Group Settings The Social Psychology of Entrepreneurship
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Social Psychology Goes to Work Industrial-Organizational Psychologists—specialize in studying all forms of behavior and cognition in work settings
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Work-Related Attitudes Job satisfaction—attitudes individuals hold concerning their jobs –The causes of job satisfaction Organizational factors –Being the only member of their ethnicity in the workplace is a concern for ethnic minority workers. Personal factors The influence of genetic factors on personality –Result is that job satisfaction is very stable over time and jobs.
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Work-Related Attitudes
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Work-Related Attitudes –The effects of job satisfaction Job satisfaction is only weakly correlated to job performance. –Many jobs do not allow for variations in performance. –Many other factors influence job performance. –Job satisfaction may be a result of good job performance rather than a cause of it.
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Organizational Citizenship Behavior Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)— people helping each other at work that is not a required part of their jobs –It is performed voluntarily without external rewards. –Five categories of OCB Altruism (helping others perform their jobs) Conscientiousness (doing more than is required) Civic virtue (showing concern for the organization) Sportsmanship (displaying tolerance) Courtesy (preventing interpersonal conflicts)
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Organizational Citizenship Behavior –What factors are related to helping at work? Belief that one is being treated fairly according to the principles of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice (trust in one’s boss and the organization) –Also influences how much employees are willing to help customers, as well as coworkers Reciprocity (trading favors) –The outcome may depend on if one is giving or receiving a favor. Employees’ perceptions regarding the breadth of their jobs Strong organizational commitment (attitudes toward the organization)
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Attitudes and Helping at Work What are your thoughts?What are your thoughts? –Have you been an employee in a work environment in which job satisfaction was low? If so, what factors were responsible for creating the low levels of job satisfaction? Did you or your coworkers engage in any behaviors indicative of feeling dissatisfied with your jobs? –If so, what were these behaviors? –What are ways that employers can increase the amount of organizational citizenship behavior shown by their employees?
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Leadership Leadership—the process though which one member of a group (its leader) influences other group members toward attainment of shared group goals
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Leadership –Why do some people become leaders? Great Person Theory of Leadership—leaders possess certain traits that set them apart from other persons and that are possessed by all leaders no matter where or when they live –Recent research shows that leaders do differ from others. Leaders tend to possess the following traits: –Drive, self-confidence, creativity, leadership motivation, and a high level of flexibility –Regarding the “Big Five” dimensions of personality, leaders tend to be high in extraversion, openness to experience, and agreeableness.
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Leadership –What do leaders do? Initiating Structure (production orientation)—a key dimension of leader behavior in which leaders are primarily concerned with getting the job done Consideration (person orientation)—a key dimension of leader behavior in which leaders focus on establishing good relations with their subordinates and on being liked by them –Leaders who are high on both dimensions may be superior leaders. Other dimensions of leader behavior –Autocratic (makes all decisions) versus participative dimension –Directive (micro-manage) versus permissive dimension »The best style of behavior depends on the situation
Leadership –Transformational Leaders—leaders who, because of several characteristics, exert profound effects on their followers Viewed as being charismatic, which is a result of demonstrating: –Idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration Also show high levels of self-confidence, excellent communication skills, an exciting personal style, and are skilled at impression management These leaders wield great influence over many people. –Followers become more dependent on these leaders while at the same time they feel more empowered because of them.
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Leadership –Transactional Leaders—leaders who direct their groups by rewarding them for desired behavior, by taking action to correct mistakes or departures from existing rules, and who generally strengthen existing structures and strategies within an organization This type of leader is more typical and can be very effective in most ordinary work settings. –Transformational leaders appear to perform better than transactional leaders in uncertain, chaotic work environments.
Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurs—individuals who recognize an opportunity for a new business and start one –Why do some people become entrepreneurs? Social factors: Modeling (observational learning) Cognitive factors: Optimistic bias, planning fallacy, the perception of low levels of risk Personal factors: High in extraversion, low in openness to experience –What influences the success of entrepreneurs? Social factors: Social skills (effective at social interaction, social perception, persuasion, and making good first impressions)
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Entrepreneurship Cognitive factors: Engage in counterfactual thinking significantly less frequently, focus on the future and not the past; Good at knowing when to stick with something and when to switch strategies (i.e., avoiding the pitfalls of sunk costs) –Regulatory Focus Theory—in regulating their own behavior, individuals adopt one of two contrasting perspectives: a promotion focus, in which they focus on attaining positive outcomes, or a prevention focus, in which they focus on avoiding negative outcomes »Which focus is more effective depends on the availability of better alternatives
Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon Leadership and Entrepreneurship What are your thoughts?What are your thoughts? –Have you encountered good leaders in the workplace? If so, what characteristics made them good leaders in that work environment? –What are possible drawbacks of transformational leaders in the workplace? –What makes some people likely to become successful entrepreneurs?