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Use this PowerPoint to complete the brainstorm on the topic of ‘Water’

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Presentation on theme: "Use this PowerPoint to complete the brainstorm on the topic of ‘Water’"— Presentation transcript:

1 Use this PowerPoint to complete the brainstorm on the topic of ‘Water’

2 Processes What three main process operate on a river?
Video -

3 Erosion (4 types) Can you remember the Kung Fu moves? Hydraulic Action
This process involves the force of water against the bed and banks. Abrasion (Corrasion) This is the process by which the bed and banks are worn down by the river’s load. The river throws these particles against the bed and banks, sometimes at high velocity. Attrition Material (the load) carried by the river bump into each other and so are smoothed and broken down into smaller particles. Corrosion This is the chemical action of river water. The acids in the water slowly dissolve the bed and the banks. Can you remember the Kung Fu moves? (these will help you to remember the meaning of each word)

4 Do you know your processes of erosion?

5 Transportation (4 types)

6 Material floats in the water and are carried by the flowing water
Some materials dissolve in water (e.g. Limestone and are carried by the flowing water Material is rolled along the river bed by the flowing water Material bounces along the river bed by the flow of the water

7 How is material transported downstream?

8 The Drainage Basin

9 Source Tributary Confluence Mouth Watershed

10 Only learn two landforms in detail
Landforms found along the course of a river can be created by either erosion, deposition or a combination of both. Video - Waterfalls Delta Meanders Levees V-shaped valleys Only learn two landforms in detail

11 Waterfalls A waterfall is usually found in the upper course of a river
It occurs when a layer of hard rock overlies a layers of softer rock The hard rock is less easily eroded creating a steep slope and rapids. Eventually a drop develops over which the water falls

12 Waterfall formation

13 Waterfalls

14 Delta A delta is found at the mouth of a river.
When a river enters the sea, it loses energy and can no longer carry as much material. Its load it deposited. If this happens at a fasters rate than at which the sea can remove the material, a delta is formed Deltas can provide rich farm lands but often suffer flooding e.g. Bangladesh

15 Delta Distributaries

16 Meanders and oxbow lakes
A meander is a bend in a river formed by lateral erosion (sideways) Meanders are found in the lower course of a river Created through erosion and deposition

17 A cross section through a meander

18 Outside bend – Fastest Flow (erosion)
Inside bend - slowest flow (deposition) This causes the bend to migrate (lateral erosion)

19 Oxbow lakes

20 V-shaped valley Vertical erosion Interlocking spurs

21 V-shaped valley

22 Floodplains and Levees
These are found in the lower course of a river close to the mouth As a river nears the mouth it has a large discharge and the river channel is deep and wide. The valley is also wide with an extensive flood plain. Each time the river floods, silt is deposited on the floodplain. Creating fertile soils. Natural levees are raised banks of deposited material found either side of the river channel.

23 Floodplains

24 Flooding Flooding is an important issue relating to rivers.
You will need to understand how water moves through a drainage basin. You will also need to be able to explain how humans change the flow of water in a drainage basin and therefore can increase the risk of flooding Videos

25 Movement of water in the drainage basin
precipitation interception evapotranspiration infiltration surface runoff throughflow percolation river water table groundwater flow

26 Key words - explained Infiltration – down ward movement of water through the soil Percolation – downward movement through the ground (rocks) Surface runoff – when water flows over the surface of the soil Through flow – when water flows through the soil Ground water flow – when water flows through the ground (rocks) Saturation – this happens to the soil when no more water can infiltrate the soil (leads to surface runoff) Interception – trees and vegetation intercept water by catching rain in their leaves Transpiration – trees breathing out water as a gas Evapotranspiration – water that evaporates off the surface of tree leaves

27 Causes of flooding Human causes Deforestation Reduces water stored, water lost to the atmosphere in transportation and evapotranspiration Removing trees increases infiltration into the soil and increases discharge in rivers Building on the floodplain Surfaces like tarmac can decreases infiltration and increases surface runoff. Resulting in more water getting into a river faster increasing the risk of flooding. Climate change Global warming has resulted in sea level rise and more incidents of extreme weather making flooding more likely and more sever in the future Physical causes Heavy rainfall Increase the amount of discharge in a river. Steep valley sides Water travels at a faster velocity (speed) in the drainage basin and gets into the river channel faster causing river levels to rise faster Rock type Some rocks do not absorb water and therefore less water will be stored into the rocks. Resulting in increased water in the river channel Number of tributaries Less tributaries means that the river has less capacity to hold water and therefore more likely to flood.

28 Hydrographs Peak discharge Falling limb Rising limb storm flow
normal (base) flow I = Lagtime Peak rainfall Write a definition of lagtime. Calculate the lagtime shown on this hydrograph.

29 What affects the shape of a hydrograph?
Hydrographs Geology and soil Gradient of the valley sides What affects the shape of a hydrograph? Land use Drainage density Type and amount of precipitation

30 See Boscastle casestudy
Flood management Flooding can be managed in a variety of ways, these can be divided into hard engineering and soft engineering approaches Remember in the exam to give examples of where these things have been done. See Boscastle casestudy

31 Hard Engineering

32 Soft Engineering

33 For flood management Some people argue flooding should be managed. This is because: - Flooding can result in thousands of pounds worth of damage It can threaten peoples lives Business and peoples livelihood can be damaged. Local economy will lose money. Floods can affect large numbers of people in urban areas Flooding can last weeks and the effects can last months even years Disruption to schools, roads, and businesses

34 Against flood management
Some people argue flooding should not be managed. This is because: - Flood defences are expensive and can result in council tax being increased. This might mean someone who is not affected by flooding having to pay for flood defences. Flood defences are only put on one small part of a river channel (too expensive to put all along a river) Some flood defences can result in greater risk of flooding further downstream.

35 How do the rivers affect people lives?
Learn two casesudies for this question. Tourism – Niagara Falls Flooding – Boscastle

36 Tourism – Niagara Falls
Benefits Tourism Jobs created Boosted local economy Local facilities improved Costs Tourism Congestion on roads Littering Crime rate increases (pick pockets) River pollution (boats)

37 Flooding – Boscastle Video -

38 What factors increased the risk of flood in Boscastle ?

39 What factors increased the flood risk?

40 Effects of the Boscastle flood

41 Management of flooding in Boscastle
Low bridges where raised The river channel was made deeper The river was straightened in parts Small amounts of afforestation in Boscastle and surrounding area

42 How do the rivers affect people lives? - The floodplain
Provide ideal land for farming. The soil tends to be very fertile so crops can be grown Or if flooding is frequent the land can be used for pastoral animals. Provide flat land that can easily be built on. Many homes in the UK are built on the floodplain of rivers.

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