2 Central Business District The CBD or Central Business District is the focal point of a city. It is the commercial, office, retail, and cultural center of the city and usually is the center point for transportation networks.There are no boundaries to the CBD. The CBD is essentially about perception. It is usually the "postcard image" one has of a particular city. There have been various attempts at delineating the boundaries of the CBD but, for the most part, one can visually or instinctively know when the CBD starts and ends as it is the core and contains a plethora of tall buildings, high density, a lack of parking, transportation nodes, a large number of pedestrians on the streets and generally just a lot of activity during the daytime.The "CBD" is the central district of a city, usually typified by a concentration of retail and commercial buildings. City centre differs from downtown in that the latter can be geographically located anywhere in a city, while a city centre is generally located near the geographic heart of the city.Source:
3 Goals and Concepts of a C.B.D. The shape and type of a CBD or downtown almost always closely reflects the city's history. Cities with maximum building height restrictions often have a separate historic section quite apart from the financial and administrative district.Central business districts usually have very small residential population.Goals and Concepts of a C.B.D.The ultimate goal to which nearly every major city aspires is to create an environment conducive to a lively atmosphere and satisfying day/night variety of “People Activities”.The building of a balanced mix of new office, shopping and recreational facilities which must include the extension of facilities to attract people in the after business hours, e.g, theater, sports, music and special events; the diversification of jobs and an increase in the employment opportunities. The provision for multilevel parking for private and public sectors, the preservation and restoration of buildings of historical heritage add a character to the city and creates an interest for the citizens.The provision for protected pedestrian walkways (whether elevated, at ground level, or underground) linking the major shopping, office and the municipal buildings.Source: Redstone, Louis G., The New Downtowns (Rebuilding Business Districts), 1976, Pg: 19
4 Historical Background The CBD developed as the market square in ancient cities. On market days, farmers, merchants and consumers would gather in the center of the city to exchange, buy, and sell goods. This ancient market is the forerunner to the CBD. As cities grew and developed, CBDs became fixed location where retail and commerce took place. The CBD is typically at or near the oldest part of the city and is often near a major transportation route that provided the site for the city's location, such as a river, railroad, or highway.Over time, the CBD developed into a center of finance and control or government as well as office space. In the early 1900s, European and American cities had CBDs that featured primarily retail and commercial cores. In the mid-20th century, the CBD expanded to include office space and commercial businesses while retail took a back seat. The growth of the skyscraper occurred in CBDs, making them more and more dense.Source:
5 AgoraThe Roman Agora served as a marketplace where merchants kept stalls or shops to sell their goods amid colonnades. Actually Agora served as a twin function of being a centre for political and commercial space activity.ForumA forum was the public space in the middle of a Roman city.In addition to its standard function as a marketplace, Forum was a gathering place of great social significance, and often the scene of diverse activities, including political discussions and debates, meetings, et cetera.BazaarA bazaar was a permanent merchandising area, marketplace, or street of shops where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The word derives from the Persian word bāzār, meaning "the place of prices". Although the current meaning of the word is believed to have originated in Persia, its use has spread and now has been accepted into the vernacular in countries around the world.Source:
6 SouqA souq is a commercial quarter in an Arab or Berber city. The term is often used to designate the market in any Arabized or Muslim city. In Modern Standard Arabic the term refers to markets in both the physical sense and the abstract economic sense.MercadoMercado in Mexico and throughout Latin America combines the elements of open-air street markets, and the more formal structures that house the bigger vendors in the major cities. Many of the Mercado have the qualities of the Mexico city’s tiangus, street markets selling a variety of goods from produce to small appliances, clothing and handicrafts that setup in different neighbourhoods each day of the week, providing variety and stability at the same time.Source:
7 Urban Structure Concentric Ring Model CBD Factory zone Urban structure is the arrangement of land use in urban areas. Sociologists, economists, and geographers have developed several models, explaining where different types of people and businesses tend to exist within the urban setting. Urban structure can also refer to the urban spatial structure, which concerns the arrangement of public and private space in cities and the degree of connectivity and accessibility.Concentric Ring ModelThe Concentric ring model also known as the Burgess model is one of the earliest theoretical models to explain urban social structures. It was created by sociologist Ernest Burgess in 1925.The zones identified are:The center was the CBDThe transition zone of mixed residential and commercial usesLow-class residential homes (inner suburbs), in later decades called inner cityBetter quality middle-class homes (Outer Suburbs)Commuters zoneCBD Commuter zone Residential zone Working class zoneZone of transition Factory zoneSource:
8 Sector ModelThe sector model, also known as the Hoyt model, is a model of urban land use proposed in 1939 by economist Homer Hoyt. It is a modification of the concentric zone model of city development. The benefits of the application of this model include the fact it allows for an outward progression of growth. As with all simple models of complex phenomena its validity is limited.Source:
9 Multiple Nuclei ModelThe multiple nuclei model is an ecological model put forth by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman in the 1945 article "The Nature of Cities." The model describes the layout of a city. It notes that while a city may have started with a central business district, similar industries with common land-use and financial requirements are established near each other. These groupings influence their immediate neighborhood. Hotels and restaurants spring up around airports, for example. The number and kinds of nuclei mark a city's growth.The theory was formed based on the idea that people have greater movement due to increased car ownership. This increase of movement allows for the specialization of regional centers (eg. heavy industry, business park). There is no clear CBD (Central Business District) in this type of model.Source:
10 The Core - Frame Model of a C.B.D. The Core frame model is a model showing the urban structure of the Central Business District of a town or city.The model includes an inner core where land is expensive and used intensively, resulting in vertical development. This area is the focus of the transport system and has a concentrated daytime population. The outer core and frame have lower land values and are less intensively developed. The various land uses are linked to the bid rent theory. The zone of assimilation and zone of discard are together called the zone of transition.Source:
11 Basic Layouts of the CBD Layout IIt introduces separate area for pedestrians in the form of a pedestrian mall.Service traffic is not separate from customer traffic.Long walk from parking to access.Layout IIIt shows a similar layout but end placed structures are activity notes like a museum or library.Access to parking is provided by a circulatory road within the site itself.Introduction of basement delivery road.Layout IIIIt shows an arrangement with three different blocks enclosing a common space.Pedestrian flow would tend to flow from one of the main magnet to another.Produces a variety of spaces.
12 Layout IV Layout V Layout IV In this layout a centralized parking is provided with a peripheral service road, which leads to segregation of customer and service traffic.Store fronts and signs can be viewed both from public road and parking lot.One major disadvantage of this layout is that it faces rush and traffic jams during peak hours when offices open and close for work.Layout VIt represents an approach with one court & two magnets placed in diagonal manner.Complex is widened by court. This court can be used for public events, kiosks etc.Provides equal opportunities to the stores.Even distribution of pedestrian flow.Layout IVThis shows approach to the centre with two magnets.This is simplest and most often used solution.
13 Essential Features of a Central Business District: If an area meets many or all of the following criteria, it would probably be considered a CBD:Houses large public buildings such as libraries, churches, stations and town halls.Contains specialist shops and branches of major department stores.Contains social amenities such as cinema halls, clubs and theatres.Contains little housing, but often hotels.Contains little or no industry.Contains offices and other professional buildings.Contains buildings that tend to be taller than other buildings in the city (because land prices tend to be at a premium, making high-rise buildings economically favorable)Has high pedestrian levels and the greatest parking restrictions.Often is the geographical centre of the settlement.Often is the area with the highest land value.Is well connected by public transport, with large numbers of passengers.Has a high traffic level.Source:
14 The Modern CBD Pedestrian Malls By the beginning of the 21st century, the CBD had become a diverse region of the metropolitan area and included residential, retail, commercial, universities, entertainment, government, financial institutions, medical centers, and culture. The experts of the city are often located at workplaces or institutions in the CBD – lawyers, doctors, academics, government officials and bureaucrats, entertainers, directors and financiers.In recent decades, the combination of residential expansion and development of shopping malls as entertainment centers have given the CBD new life. One can now find, in addition to housing, mega-malls, theaters, museums, and stadiums.Pedestrian MallsPedestrian malls are also common today in CBDs in an effort to make the CBD a 24 hour a day destination for not only those who work in the CBD but also to bring in people to live and to play in the CBD, keeping the vehicular movement restricted to the outskirts and to a minimum. Without entertainment and cultural opportunities, the CBD is often far more populated during the day than at night as relatively few workers live in the CBD and most do commute to their jobs in the CBD.Source:
15 Land Value and the Bid Rent Theory Land users, whether they be retail; office; or residential, all compete for the most accessible land within the CBD. The amount they are willing to pay is called bid rent. This can generally be shown in a ‘bid rent curve’. Based upon the reasoning that the more accessible the land, generally in the centre, is the more expensive land.Commerce (in particular large department stores/chain stores) is willing to pay the greatest rent to be located in the inner core. The inner core is very valuable for them because it is traditionally the most accessible location for a large population. As a result, they are willing and able to pay a very high land rent value.As you move from the inner core, the amount commerce is willing to pay declines rapidly. Industry, however, is willing to pay to be in the outer core.As you move further out, so the land is less attractive to industry due to the reducing communication links and a decreasing market place. Because the householder does not rely heavily on these and can now afford the reduced costs (when compared with the inner and outer core) is able to purchase land.The further you go from the inner core and outer core, the cheaper the land. This is why inner city areas are very densely populated (terraces, flats and high rises), whilst the suburbs and rural areas are sparsely populated (semi and detached houses with gardens).Source:
16 Central Business District- Components GENERAL APPEARANCEThe study of various aspects like urban and open spaces , enclosure and relation of buildings is important at planning stage. Design harmony among buildings is attained by describing a predominant character to urban spaces.An interesting skyline is maintained along with landscaped green open spaces and plantings to create a unifying design concept among the buildings.Variety of vistas, visual focal points and views are created along with interesting architectural details.Unnecessary signs, poles and wires add visual chaos to the surroundings so they need to be avoided and vacancies are to created that allow space for expansion.A urban space must be distinguished by a predominant character:Quality of enclosureQuality of its detailed treatmentActivity that takes place in itThe scale of open spaces is determined by trees, rocks, shrubs and group surface rather than their gross width and length.Assuming that the CBD will be served by accessible transport, we need to introduce the universal design elements in the physical design of CBD. The proposed design for the CDB has been modified for the following components.Source: Watson Donald, Plattus Alan and Shibley Robbert, Time savers standards for urban design, Pg ,10
17 THE GRAND PUBLIC SPACEA public space is a social space such as a town square that is open and accessible to all, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, age or socio-economic level.Located near a diversity of land uses( office, retail, warehouses) it tends to attract the users from a greater distances and in a great variety.Such a plaza is often big and and flexible enough to host the brown-bag lunch crowds, outdoor cafes; passers through; and the occasional concerts, art shows, exhibits, and rallies.The street plaza: an area predominately hard surfaced, centrally located, and highly visible. It is often the setting for programmed events such as concerts, performances etc.The city square: a centrally located, often historic place where major thorough fares intersect. It is usually bounded by streets.Source: Watson Donald, Plattus Alan and Shibley Robbert, Time savers standards for urban design, Pg- 6.-1
18 WALKWAY SYSTEMS AND SKYWAY BRIDGES Elevated walkway systems are a comparatively recent development in the provision of a pedestrian linkage to the major buildings in the most effective area of the central business district.These second level passages not only offers protection from bad weather but also afford the pedestrians a safe and pleasant means of circulation within the CBD, completely separated from the motor vehicles and their pollutants.The space in the buildings connected by skyways is often devoted to retail business, so areas around the skyway may operate as a shopping mall.Primarily, the skyway plan consists of -Mid-block crossings which connect the interior arcades through the buildings to form one continuous system..They also connect with a series of strategically located enclosed courts which provide comfort and beauty and provide for year-round activities.Source: Redstone, Louis G., The New Downtowns (Rebuilding Business Districts), 1976, Pg: 29
19 INFORMATIONS AND SIGNS Signage serves two functions—Provide direction of flow to occasional visitors and new employees in cbdto convey information and to attract attention. The overall facade composition, including ornamental details, color and materials, should be considered when determining the location, size and character of signage.Points of consideration:SIGN DESIGN.Consider both pedestrian and vehicular traffic inselecting and designing signage.2.SIGNAGE AND THE BUILDINGSignage should be low-key in order to avoidcompetition with the architecture of the structure.Materials and design should be compatible withthe building’s materials and style. Locate signs sothat they emphasize design elements of thefacade, but do not obscure architectural details,windows or other significant features.Source: Watson Donald, Plattus Alan and Shibley Robbert, Time savers standards for urban design, Pg
20 Signs can also reinforce the horizontal lines of moldings and transoms, and accent architectural details when placed appropriately.The design and style of both the lettering and sign should complement the style of the building.Signs for multiple businesses in a single building should be designed with similar materials, backs and lettering styles.3.MATERIALSGlass, painted wood, painted metal or architectural decorative metals such as copper, bronze, brass, aluminum or stainless steel are appropriate sign materials. Unfinished, non-decorative materials, including unpainted wood and highly reflective materials are discouraged. Plastic is only allowed as individual three dimensional letters applied to a sign or building, or where the face of an existing sign is to be replaced with like materials.4.SIGN LIGHTING.Sign lighting should be indirect, not bright and glaring. Internal illumination of signs is prohibited. Neon lighting should be used only in small amounts and where appropriate to the building design.5.The signs should be such that they direct the visitors to the elevators,restrooms, telephones and cafeterias or coffee shops.
21 6.On leaving the building, clear signs indicating the way to the transit stop, taxi stands, and the nearby streets.7.For larger developments and parking lots, directional signs can beincorporated that are designed to be an attractive addition to the streetscape.Public SeatingPoints of consideration:1.The design must recognize that the seating is the most important element in encouraging the plaza use.2.The seating meets the needs of the various types of sitters commonly found in most of the plazas.3.These seating must be placed in those locations that are not sunny during the lunch hours; in the shade.4.Secondary seating (mounts of grass, steps with a view, seating walls, retaining walls that allow sitting) must be incorporated in the plaza design, to increase the overall seating capacity without creating a “sea of benches” .5.A sense of privacy must be created for some of the seating, through the placement of the planters and the other design elements.Source: Watson Donald, Plattus Alan and Shibley Robbert, Time savers standards for urban design, Pg
23 VENDORSIn addition to traditional brick-and-mortar businesses, street vendors also contribute to the urban landscape and can be found throughout downtown’s Central Business District (CBD).Vending is restricted to specific locations, but in general, vending is allowed on public streets and sidewalks within the CBD and within 300 feet of the CBD. Types of merchandise that can be sold by a street vendor include food, beverages, flowers, cards, pens and regional souvenirs. The sale of clothing items other than T-shirts or caps is not permitted.Source: Watson Donald, Plattus Alan and Shibley Robbert, Time savers standards for urban design, Pg
24 Points of consideration: Street vendors and informal trade, provides employment and incomes to a significant percentage of people, in particular within the urban areas.The trade takes place at strategic points with heavy human traffic - along main roads, streets, parks, pavements, within shopping centers, and at prominent corners of streets and roads where traders are visible to pedestrians and motorists.Vending certain types of goods in particular locations increases the popularity of retail areas, enliven the environment of a plaza or a sidewalk, and provides security.Points of consideration:The plaza should be designed to accommodate the vendors, whose presence will add to the vitality of that place, provides a measure of security, and often increases the popularity of the surrounding retail outlets.Providing vendors should be colorful, fabric ”roof” be provided for that area, to draw the attention to the facility, provide the shelter and shade, the contrast with the scale of the CBD buildings.The area for the vendors or market should be situated so as to be easily accessible and highly visible.
25 ART IN THE CBD environment In planning the central business district environment, art, in its various forms must become an element that will bring spiritual and aesthetic satisfaction-as important as the part of man’s existence as the satisfaction of purely material needs.Art to be used in the public places such as plazas, playgrounds, lobbies of the government buildings and parks- wherever people congregate .Art in all forms like- sculpture, fountains, special landscaping, well designed lighting, good graphics, outdoor furniture, and interesting sidewalk patterns-can create an exciting atmosphere.Source: Redstone, Louis G., The New Downtowns (Rebuilding Business Districts), 1976, Pg: 55
26 Trees shall be provided along major pedestrian corridors. LANDSCAPINGLandscaping helps to soften the harshness of development, and creates attractive areas to view, visit and use.Trees and shrubs help to reduce the amount of wind and dust in an area. Landscaping is especially important for patios,sidewalks and parking areas.Trees shall be provided along major pedestrian corridors.Full growth size of tree shall be considered when planting, so there is space between the tree canopy, the building façade, and other architectural elements.•Trees shall not be placed closer than 30 feet from intersections. They shall remain out of the clear vision triangle.•Branch height of mature trees on traffic side shall be no less than 13’-6” above the street.Branch height on pedestrian side shall be no less than 8’above the sidewalk.•Proper irrigation systems shall be installed to establish and maintain healthygrowth.•Tree species shall be selected that can withstand the harsh conditions of the urban environment. When an area is to be unified, plant only one species.•Mature tree height and canopy fullness shall not obscure important building features or business identification.Source: Watson Donald, Plattus Alan and Shibley Robbert, Time savers standards for urban design, Pg
27 Major Functions of Plant Materials AestheticsEnvironmental ModificationScreeningCirculation ControlPlants can act as barriers or screens, providing privacy and eliminating trash areas.To provide visual control planting should be at least 6 feet high.Depending upon the thickness of the foliage, the size of the branches and the loudness of the sound, noise and sound can be controlled by plants.Mature street trees shall be maintainedfor clear head clearance.
28 Plant materials are grouped into general categories relative to their size and habitat .These categories include:Overstory -- tall plants (typically trees) that form overhead canopiesUnderstory -- shorter plants (shrubs and small trees)Ground cover -- plants that grow close to the ground (typically less than 12" tall). May be used to stabilize soil or slopes.Vines -- plants that attach themselves to other objects for support.On the basis of texture: fine , medium and coarse
29 LANDSCAPED TREE NAMES TYPE SIZE AREAStreet Trees Thornless Honey Locust ” caliperCallery PearRed OakLittleleaf Linden.Trees for internal White Fir foot for evergreensand screening areas Norway Maple with a 30” spread andTulip Tree ” caliper for deciduousAustrian and Red PineShrubs for No less than 30” ininternal and screening Deciduous and height and 2’ spreadareas Evergreen treesLilacDogwoodJuniperWinterberryBearberry•
30 STREETSA street is a paved public thoroughfare in a built environment. It is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. A street can be as simple as a level patch of dirt , but is more often paved with a hard, durable surface such as concrete, cobblestone or brick .Originally the word "street" simply meant a paved road .The word "street" is still sometimes used colloquially as a synonym for "road", but a crucial modern distinction is that: a road's main function is transportation, while streets facilitate public interaction.Examples of streets include pedestrian streets, and city-centre streets too crowded for road vehicles to pass.Source:
31 ALLEYSAn alley or alleyway is a narrow, pedestrian lane found in urban areas which usually runs between or behind buildings. In older cities and towns in Europe, alleys are often what is left of a medieval street network, or a right of way or ancient footpath in an urban setting. In older urban development, alleys were built to allow for deliveries such as coal to the rear of houses."Alley" is of French origin, meaning "a way to go", and has been adapted in English as a name for avenue or a parkway i.e. any type of road lined with trees.Source:
32 PEDESTRIANS WALKING DISTANCES Walking distances, are important because they are a factor in plan configuration, and a measure of design serviceability. The practical limit of human walking distances appears to be related more to the context and the situation than the human energy.For most persons the maximum tolerable distance is in the range of a normal5-10 minute walk.WALKING SPEEDSThe pedestrians vary their walking speeds over a wide range. The average free flow walking speed of the non baggage carrying pedestrians in the surveys, forall males: 270ft(88m) /minfemales: 254ft(77m) /minand the combination of all the pedestrians: 265ft(80m) /minPEDESTRIAN VOLUMEThe equation for pedestrians flow volume,(P), in pedestrians per foot width of the pedway section, per minute,(PFM)is expressed as follows:Ped volume= Average Ped Speed,feet/minAverage Ped Area, sq.ft/pedSource: Watson Donald, Plattus Alan and Shibley Robbert, Time savers standards for urban design, Pg
33 HUMAN BODY DIMENSIONS: the body ellipse Body depth and the shoulder breadth are the primary human measurements used by designers of pedestrian spaces and facilities. Shoulder breadth is a factor affecting the practical capacity of the doorways ,passageways, stairways and mechanical devices such as escalators and the moving walks. In a plan view, the average adult human body occupies an area of about sq.ft(1.4 sqmts).Body depth18”24”Shoulder breadthA large ellipse of 18inch by 24inch, equivalent to an area of 2.3 sqft(2 sq.mts), allow for the fact that many pedestrians are carrying personal articles, natural psychological preferences to avoid bodily contact with the others. This determines the practical standard for pedestrian design as an ellipse of 24inch by 18inch.
34 In this formulation, the designer has a clearer concept of relative design quality, since the units are easier to understand and manipulate. For e.g. a normal average walking speed of 250sq.ft per minute is attained with an approximate average pedestrian area of 25sq.ft.person. the simple division of area occupancy into average speed gives an equivalent design volume of 10 pedestrians per foot(density) width of walkway per minute.PRINCIPLES OF SAFETY AND SECURITY IN PUBLIC PLACESDesign for the pedestrians to move about in the well-lit, wide circulation routes that reflect the existing patterns of movementthe principle asserts the well-used and the vibrant streets are essential for the safety. Measures that detract from the street life nay increase the risks, such as overhead walkways and underground malls.Consider safety of people and property together rather than separatelyIn the traditional Neighbourhood Watch approaches and the Business Watch approaches, it is sometimes assumed that the concern is about robbery rather than the personal safety. Street crime, assault and harassment-less visible than the broken windows and stolen property-have higher economic and social costs.Use opportunities for enhancing natural surveillance.Responsible business owners, neighbours and strangers are the best defenses against crime. Urban plazas, parks, pathways and parking lots should be
35 designed not only to allow people to see and be see and be seen but also be provided with call boxes and graphics clearly indicating ways of helping yourself or getting help.Provide good maintenanceGood maintenance is crucial for lasting design improvements. Adding lighting does no good if not frequently cleaned or if burned out bulbs are not immediately replaced. A broken fence no longer fulfills its function. Critical maintenance items should be designed for easy access for easy access for cleaning, replacements and repair.Make sure solutions to one problem don’t cause anotherSafety is part of the integrated design objectives to improve urban quality and public amenity.Active, carefully designed, well lit and well maintained urban places help address all such concerns.Involve neighborhoods in public safety planningLocal business owners, residents, and community leaders will know local and nuisance patterns that pose safety risks and should be invited to serve a significant role in creating a comprehensive urban design plan for safety and security.
36 Traffic calming involves physical measures that: Traffic calming is becoming an increasingly important part of the effort for cities, towns, and villages to become safer and increasingly livable, economically successful and sustainable.Traffic calming involves physical measures that:Reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle use,Alter driver behavior,Improve the condition for non motorized street users.Traffic calming slows motorized to a “desired speed” (i-e, the speeds that the community wants);typically 20mhp(32kph) or less for residential streets, and 25-30mhp (40 to 48 kph) on commercial streets, collector streets, and the arterial streets. Traffic calming can be accomplished by:Retrofitting the existing streets with regularly spaced measures, and/or,Rebuilding the streets to include the new cross-sections.Source: Watson Donald, Plattus Alan and Shibley Robbert, Time savers standards for urban design, Pg
37 ROUNDABOUTSRoundabouts are both traffic calming measure and a highly efficient intersection design. They calm the traffic by introducing the three successive reverse curves of short radius; to the right to enter the circle, and to the right to exit the circle.Many roundabouts further calm the traffic by reducing the sight distance for oncoming the motorists, with the trees or man-made features in the centre of the roundabout.The size of the central island largely determines the operating speed of the vehicles. Small islands cause little deflection, and therefore provide little speed reduction
38 Splitter islands are typically used at roundabouts that would otherwise be signalized intersections, because:They reduce the disparity in speed between circulating and incoming vehicles.They eliminate the possibility of right-angles collisions.
39 ROAD INTERSECTIONSIt reduce the severity of potential conflicts between motor vehicles, buses, trucks, bicycles, pedestrians, and facilities, while facilitating the convenience, ease, and comfort of people traversing the intersections.As is the case with other aspects of the highway design process, designers can use a wide range of intersection design elements in combination to provide both operational quality and safety. These include:Traffic islands to separate conflictingvehicle movementsStreet closures or realignments to simplifythe number and orientation of trafficmovements through an intersectionSeparate left and right turn lanes to removeslow moving or stopped vehicles fromthrough traffic lanesMedians and channelized islands toprovide refuge for pedestrians andbicyclists out of the vehicular traveled way.
41 DESIGN FEATURES FOR UNIVERSAL DESIGN FROM A MANUAL FOR A BARRIER FREE ENVIRONMENT.Height and design of sill and hanging hoarding for unobstructed shopping arcade.Tactile warning marking on theground around the obstructionStreet furniture at a uniforminterval of mExtra 1.2m to accommodate wheel chair.
42 Provision of kerbstone along both sides to resist a slippageSeperate 1.5m side walkway for combined walkway traffic of wheelchair and the sightless person.Location of ramps: at parking lotsParking width of 3.6m instead ofnormal 2.5m width requirement
43 Parking width of 2.5m with a common aisle of 1.2mProvision of wheel stop to allow free passage of wheelchairFor free movement of wheelchair, the minimum width of walkway shouldbe 1.5m.The minimum unobstructed width of walkway should be 0.9m.The shopping arcade has 6m wide walkway.The walkways along the open space and along the service road haveminimum width and that is 3m. Thus, the walkway widths conform touniversal design guidelines.Ramps are introduced at the pedestrian crossing points to let thewheelchair access the walkway from road.WALKWAY
44 The transition between walkway and the green landscaped area should be marked with edge stone, which would protrude from the floor of the walkway to alert the sightless persons and also to guide the movement of wheelchair. None of these elements generate extra cost for implementation butdemands an eye for detail.All pedestrian crossings will be provided with ramps. This element also does not generate any additional cost but demands designer's attention to detailing.Proper signaling system should also be installed to allow wheel chair users and other mobility impaired individuals to cross safely. Moreover, the non-users of the facility should be considerate in this matter.CROSSINGSPARKINGA certain percentage of the parking will be transformed into parking for disabled people. Thus, the width of parking will be transformed into 3.6 m instead of 2.5m. Hence, the number of a part of the parking will be reduced to 0.70 (2.5/3.6) times.The design elements are Kerb stone, Ramps, Tactile materials to be used for surface of walkway, Signaling, Fewer Parking Spaces.
45 ShopsIn order to design satisfactory shops, the first requirement is an understanding of those portions of current merchandising theories which affect the design problem . Briefly, ''merchandising psychology" consists of, first, arousing interest ; second, satisfying it .Large shop heights vary from 3.9m – 4.57mSmall shop has an optimum height of 3.04mBasements 3m high permit economical stock storageGround floors are usually 4.2m high if no mezzanine is included.Mezzanines should be at least 2.5m above the floor level.Grids:Large units between 7.3m x 10.9 on frontage and 9.14m on depth.Small units between 5.18m x 5.8m on frontageOfficesSingle/ Group OfficeNormalMaximumDepth of Office3.75 – 7.50 mt9.25 mDist. b/w Windows1.00 – 3.25 mt6.00 mDist. b/w Columns1.75 – 7.50 mt11.00 mMain Corridor Width1.75 – 2.50 mt3.25 mSide Corridor Width1.50 – 2.00 mt2.50 mHeight of Office2.50 – 4.00 mt5.00 mShop Layouts
46 Vertical Circulation 1. Staircase : 2. Ramp : Interior stairs shall be constructed of non-combustible material throughout.Stairs shall be constructed as a self-contained unit with at least one side adjacent to an external wall and shall be completely enclosed.A staircase shall not be arranged round a lift shaft for building 15.0 mt. and above height.The stair-case & lifts shall be so located that it shall be within accessible distance of not more than 25 Mts. from any entrance of tenement or an office provided on each floor.The minimum width of treads without nosing shall be 30 cm. for a commercial high-rise buildings. The treads shall be constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent slipping. No winders shall be allowed.The maximum height of riser shall be 15 cm. in the case of office buildings and there shall not be more than 12 risers per flight.Handrails shall be provided with a minimum height of 100 cm. from the center of the tread. Minimum headroom shall be of 2.1m.2. Ramp :Inclined plane or surface connecting different levels; a stair without a risers, to enable a person to climb without interruption and to permit the use of wheeled carts, chair or vehicles.A ramp when provided shall not have a slope greater than 1 : 12. Larger slopes shall be provided for special uses but in no case greater than 1 : 8.Minimum clear width shall be 36” (3 feet).The minimum width of the ramps in the basement using car parking shall be 6.0 mt.Handrails shall be provided on both sides of the ramp.Ramps shall have level landings at bottom and top of each ramp and each ramp run.If ramps change direction at landings, the minimum landing size shall be 60” x 60”.Each ramp shall have at least 180 cm of straight clearance at the bottom.Source: Neufert, Ernst and Peter, Architects’ Data, Third Edition, Pg -444National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 113
47 3. Lifts or Elevators :The upward and downward moment of people in newly erected multi-storey buildings is achieved by lifts.In large multistory building it is usual to look at the lifts at a central pedestrian circulation point.Lift position should be such that it does not obstruct the main entrance to the building and adjacent to the principle staircase.Area allowed varies from sq m per person.For a block of offices of not more than five stories the speed may be from 37 to 60 m per min.For a multistory departmental store with a restaurant on the top floor, speed of 90 to 120 m per min.A lift shall be provided in buildings as prescribed hereunder:(i) In case of Building having height more than 13.0 Mts. lift shall be provided.(ii) Lift shall be provided of one lift per sq.mts. or part thereof of built-up area for commercial buildings.Passenger LiftSource: National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 971
48 Elevators for Disabled In multi-storey building elevators are principal means of vertical circulation for those confined to wheelchairs and for others with difficulty in walking.Minimum dims of elevator car to accommodate standard wheelchair:1100 internal depth, 900width , 700 clear door opening.In public building there should be sufficient space for another person to accompany chair-bond:1400 min. width, 1100 width.In special residential homes large wheelchairs are to be accommodated; dimensions:1800 depth ,1000width, 800 door opening.Elevator cars must be accurate in leveling and at landings.Photoelectric devices in doors to prevent premature closing desirable .Control buttons should light to operate .Mean height should be 1400, max 1600To position wheel chairs there should be clear space at least 1500 x 1500 before each lift door.
49 4. Escalators : Characteristics An escalator is a moving staircase conveyor transport device for carrying people between floors of a building. It consists of a motor-driven chain of individual, linked steps that move up or down on tracks, allowing the step treads to remain horizontal.It continuously receives and discharges its live load at a constant speed with practically no waiting periods at any loading.CharacteristicsThese are Installed at an angle of 300 but within 350 .Installations are generally 2 speed-with the higher speed (120 fpm) utilized during rush hours and the lower (90 fpm) at off hours.Moving stairways are generally available in widths of 32” and 48”, measured at hip level between the balustrades; 40” can carry 2 persons/tread.32” has a tread width of 24” and 48” width has 40” tread.All treads have a rise of 8” and 16” depth.32” wide step-5, 000 passengers/hour, with a speed of 90 fpm, and 6,666 passengers/hour with a speed of 120 fpm.48” wide step-8, 000 passengers/hr with 90 fpm speed and 10,665 passengers/hr at a speed of 120 fpm.Criss-Cross EscalatorsParallel EscalatorsSource: National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 996, 997
51 ParkingIt’s the act of stopping a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied for more than a brief time.Specialized parking facilities are routinely constructed in combination with most buildings to facilitate the coming and going of the buildings’ users. Parking facilities include indoor and outdoor, the side of the road, a parking lot or car park, and multilevel structuresThese areas include the area for parking stall plus the circulation areas.Common angled or perpendicular parking stalls are 8 to 9 feet ( m) Wide by 16 to 18 feet ( m) Long.Standard Parking Bay is 16’X8’ or 5mt X2.4mtThe choice of specific parking dimensions depends upon the function of the parking. Further ramp plays an important role to reach the parking provided in the basement. It may be straight, curved or combination.The maximum ramp slope should be 15 percent. The min. width of ramp should be 22 ft. for two way traffic.Source: Neufert, Ernst and Peter, Architects’ Data, Third Edition, Pg -443National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 107,108
52 Types of Parking Open 23 Ground floor covered 28 Basement 32 Multilevel with ramps30Automated multilevel with lifts16(Area in m2 per ECS)Source: Neufert, Ernst and Peter, Architects’ Data, Third Edition, Pg -440National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 107
53 Parking spaces are usually outlined by 12-20 mm wide yellow or white painted lines. When parking is facing a wall, these lines are often painted at a height of up to 1 m for better visibility.Guide rails in the floor along the side have also proved popular for demarcation of parking limits, and can be about cm long, 20 cm wide and 10 cm high.When vehicles are parked in lines facing walls or at the edge of the parking deck in a multi-storey car-park, it is common practice to provide buffers, restraining bars or railings up to axle height to prevent cars from going over the edge.Where cars are parked face to face, transverse barriers about 10 cm high can be used to act as frontal stops.Source: Neufert, Ernst and Peter, Architects’ Data, Third Edition, Pg -439
54 Specifications of Parking meant for Building Serving Physically Disabled The size and location of parking spaces required must confirm to the following standards:An accessible parking space must be at least 8 feet wide.An access aisle adjacent to an accessible parking must be at least 5 feet wide and may not be restricted by a built-up curb ramp, planters, curbs, wheel stops ,or any other obstructions.Two adjacent parking spaces may share a common access aisle.An access aisle:A) Must be part of an accessible route to the building or facility; andB) Must either merge with the accessible route or have a curb ramp to the accessible routeAn accessible parking space and an access aisle must Have a surface slope of not more than 1:50 in all directions.An accessible parking space and an access aisle must be designated with blue lines.Source: National Building Code of India 2005, Annex-D, Clause 12.21, Pg – 126, 127, 128
55 Fire FightingBuilding regulations require that due consideration must be given in buildings to:The flammability of building materialsThe duration of fire resistance of the components expressed in terms of fire resistance classificationsThe integrity of the sealing of openingsThe arrangement of escape routesThe aim is to prevent the start and spread of a fire, stem the spread of smoke and facilitate the escape or rescue of persons and animals.In addition consideration must be given to effective extinguishing of a fire. Active and passive precautions must be taken to satisfy these requirements.Active Precautions -:Active precautions are those systems that are automatically deployed in the event of fire.Active precautions include smoke and fire alarm systems, sprinkler systems, water spray extinguishers plant, CO2 extinguishing installations, powder and foam extinguisher plant, and automatic smoke and heat venting systems.Source: Neufert, Ernst and Peter, Architects’ Data, Third Edition, Pg -131
56 Passive Precautions -: Passive precautions are the construction solutions in the building and its components.Passive precautions relate mainly to minimum structural sections, casing and coatings.In addition to these, other important measure are the layout of rising mains, installation of fire doors and fire windows, construction of supporting floors, water cooling of hollow steel profiles and the dimensioning of casings and coatings of steel profiles.The no. of exits & escape routes required also depends on the maximum no. of people in the area under consideration. Below are typical requirements:-500 people exitsplus one extra 500 personsThe minimum width of horizontal escape routes is also determined by the no. of people using them. Typical values are:50 people mmmmmmextra 5mm per personSource: Neufert, Ernst and Peter, Architects’ Data, Third Edition, Pg – 131, 138
57 Special risk areas or Storage racks Automatic Water SprinklersAutomatic sprinklers are devices for automatically distributing water upon a fire in sufficient quantity to extinguish it completely or to prevent its spread, by keeping the fire under control, by the water discharged from the sprinklers.It consists of a network of pipes 20 mm. dia fixed to the ceiling of the room. Pipes spaced at 3m c/c.Heat actuated sprinkler heads fixed to these pipes at regular intervals. Pipes get supply from a header.Each sprinkler head provided with a fusible plug.The fusible plug in the sprinkler nearest to the fire melts and water gushes out. Fire is thus brought under control in a short period of time.Types of Sprinkler Systems:Wet - The pipes are permanently charged with water and used for all locations except where freezing temperatures are likely to occur or special conditions exist.Dry - The pipes are normally charged with air under pressure.Alternate - Can be arranged to be either wet or dry depending upon ambient temperature conditions.Pre-action - The pipes are normally charged with air, and get filled with water when a fire actuates a separate detection system.Hazard classGeneralSpecial risk areas or Storage racksExtra Light Hazard21m²9m²Ordinary Hazard12m²Extra High Hazard7.5m²-10m²Area covered by Sprinklers:Source: National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 189, 191Image from
58 Access for firefighters Fire ExitsEvery building meant for human occupancy shall be provided with exits sufficient to permit safe escape of occupants in case of fire or other emergency.All exits shall be free of a obstructions.Exits shall be clearly visible and the routes to reach the exist shall be clearly marked and sign posted at each floor. All exit ways shall be properly illuminated.Fire fighting equipment where provided along exits shall be suitably located and clearly marked but must not obstructed the exit way.All exits shall provide continuous means of aggress to the exterior of a building or to open space leading to a street.Exits shall be so located so that the travel distance on the floor shall not exceed 30 m.All the exits shall be accessible from the entire floor area at all floor levels.Access for firefightersSource: National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 171
59 Fire Exit Doorways Fire Staircase Every exit door way shall open into an enclosed stairway, a horizontal exit, on a corridor or passage way providing continuous and protected means of egress;No exit doorway shall be less than 100 cm. in width. Doorways shall be not less than 200 cm. in height.Exit doorways shall open outwards, that is away from the room but shall not obstruct the travel along any exit.No door, when open, shall reduce the required width of stairway or landing to less than 90 cm.Overhead or sliding doors shall not be installed.Fire StaircaseFire escape stairs shall have straight flight not less than 125 cm wide with 25 cm treads and risers not more than 15 cm.Handrails shall be at a height not less than 100 cm from the center of tread.Fire escape staircase in the buildings above 24 mts. height shall be a fire towerWidth of the same shall not be less than the width of the main staircase.Risers shall be limited to 15 per flight. The minimum unobstructed head room in a passage under the landing of a staircase and under the staircase shall be 2.2 m.External exit door of staircase enclosure at ground level shall open directly to the open spacesNo combustible material shall be allowed in the fire tower.The treads shall be constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent slipping.Source: National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 171
60 Services: Connections Mains connection rooms should be planned in collaboration with the mains service providers.They must be in locations which can be accessed easily by all (e.g. off the staircase or cellar corridor, or reached directly from outside) and they must not be used for through passages.They have to be on an outside wall, through which connections can be routed.Walls should have a fire resistance of at least F30 (minutes).A floor gully must be provided where there is connection to water or district heating mains.Mains connections rooms must be ventilated to the open air.Source: Neufert, Ernst and Peter, Architects’ Data, Third Edition, Pg -74
61 Rain Water HarvestingRainwater harvesting is the gathering, or accumulating and storing, of rainwater.Rainwater harvesting has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation or to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge.Rainwater systems are simple to construct from inexpensive local materials, and are potentially successful in most habitable locations.Household rainfall catchment systems are appropriate in areas with an average rainfall greater than 200mm per year.The rate at which water can be collected from either system is dependent on the plan area of the system, its efficiency, and the intensity of rainfall.There are a number of types of systems to harvest rainwater ranging from very simple to the complex industrial systems.Source: waterharvesting/
62 GROUND CATCHMENT SYSTEMS Ground catchments systems channel water from a prepared catchment area into storage.Generally they are only considered in areas where rainwater is very scarce and other sources of water are not available.They are more suited to communities than individual families and if properly designed, ground catchments can collect large quantities of rainwater.In India this includes Bawdis and johads, or ponds which collect the run-off from small streams in wide area.In India, reservoirs called tanki’s are used to store water; typically they were shallow with mud walls. Ancient tankas still exist in some places.ROOF CATCHMENT SYSTEMSRoof catchment systems channel rainwater that falls onto a roof into storage via a system of gutters and pipes.The first flush of rainwater after a dry season should be allowed to run to waste as it will be contaminated with dust, bird droppings etc.Roof gutters should have sufficient incline to avoid standing water. They must be strong enough, and large enough to carry peak flows.Storage tanks should be covered to prevent mosquito breeding and to reduce evaporation losses, contamination and algal growth.The water shall be chlorinated using chlorine tablets or solution to maintain a residual chlorine of approximately 1 mg/1. The tank must have an overflow leading to a natural water courses or to any additional tanks.Source: waterharvesting/National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 1068,1069
63 Sub-soil Water Drainage Sub-soil water is that portion of the rainfall which is absorbed into the ground.Systems of sub-soil drainageClay or concrete porous field drain pipes maybe used and shall be laid in one of the following ways :-Natural — The pipes are laid to follow the natural depressions or valleys of the site; branches discharge into the main as tributaries do into a river.Herringbone — The system consists of a number of drains into which discharges from both sides smaller subsidiary branch drains parallel to each other, but an angle to the mains forming a series of herringbone pattern. Normally these branch drains should not exceed 30 m in length.Grid — A main or mains drain is laid to the boundaries if the site into which subsidiary branches discharge from one side only.Fan-Shaper— The drains are laid converging to a single outlet at one point on the boundary of a site, without the use of main or collecting drains.Building BlockMoat or cut-off system — This system consists of drains laid on one or more sides of a building to intercept the flow of subsoil water and carry it away, thereby protecting the foundations of a building.Source: National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 1070,1071
64 ADVANTAGES IN URBAN AREAS The choice of one or more of these systems will naturally depend on the local conditions of the site.For building sites, the mains shall be not less than75 mm in diameter and the branches not less than 65 mm in diameter but normal practice tends towards the use of 100 mm and 75 mm respectively.The pipes shall generally be laid at 600 to 900 mm depth, or to such a depth to which it is desirable to lower the water table and the gradients are determined rather by the fall of the land than by considerations of self-cleansing velocity.The connection of the subsidiary drain to the main drain is best made by means of a clayware or concrete junction pipe.SUBSURFACE DYKEA subsurface dyke is built in an aquifer to obstruct the natural flow of groundwater, thereby raising the groundwater level and increasing the amount of water stored in the aquifer.The subsurface dyke at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannur under Kerala Agricultural University with the support of ICAR, has become an effective method for ground water conservation by means of rain water harvesting technologies. The sub-surface dyke has demonstrated that it is a feasible method for conserving and exploiting the groundwater resources of the Kerala state of India. The dyke is now the largest rainwater harvesting system in that region.ADVANTAGES IN URBAN AREASRainwater harvesting can be adopted in cities are to provide supplemental water for the city's requirements, to increase soil moisture levels for urban greenery, to increase the ground water table through artificial recharge, to mitigate urban flooding and to improve the quality of groundwater.In urban areas of the developed world, at a household level, harvested rainwater can be used for flushing toilets and washing laundry.It can also be used for showering or bathing. It may require treatment prior to use for drinking.Source: National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 1071Image from
65 Solid Waste Management Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of waste materials.The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each.Diagram of the waste hierarchySolid Waste Management StrategySource:Image from
66 Waste Disposal Methods By Dumping into a pitBy Dumping into seaBy Sanitary land fillingBy CompostingBy Ploughing in fieldsBy Hog feedingBy Grinding and discharging to sewerBy SalvagingBy Fermentation or biological digestionBy Heating it in IncineratorRefuse Chute SystemRefuse chute system is a convenient and safe mode of collection of domestic solid wastes from buildings exceeding 3 storeys. The internal diameter of the chute shall be at least 300 mm. The access to the refuse chute shall be provided from well ventilated and well illuminated common corridor or lobby and preferably it should not be located opposite or adjacent to entry of individual flats or lift.Size of trolleyThe size of the garbage trolley shall be adequate for the daily quantity of garbage from a chute. For working out quantity of garbage, a standard of approximately 0.75 kg/person maybe taken.Source: National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 1077Image from
67 Static Water Storage Tank A satisfactory supply of water exclusively for the purpose of fire fighting shall always be available in the form of underground static storage tank with arrangements of replenishment by town's main or alternative source of 1000 liters per minute.The static storage water supply required for the above mentioned purpose should entirely be accessible to the fire engines of the local fire service. Provision of suitable number of manholes shall be made available for inspection repairs and insertion of suction hose etc.The static water storage tank shall be provided with a fire brigade collecting branching with 4 Nos. 63mm dia instantaneous male inlets arranged in a valve box.Drainage and Sanitation Requirements(Office Building)Water requirements for office buildings is 45 lts / head / day.S. No.ELEMENTSFOR MALESFOR FEMALESi)Water-closets1 for every 25 persons or part thereofI for every 15 persons or part thereofii)Ablution taps1 in each WCiii)UrinalsNil, up to 6 persons for 7-20 persons2 for persons for persons4 for personsFrom 101 to 200 persons of 3%For over 200 persons of 2.5 %iv)Wash basinsv)Drinking water fountains1 for every 100 persons with a minimum of one on each floorvi)Cleaner’s sinks1 per floor, Min, preferably in or adjacent to sanitary roomsSource: National Building Code of India 2005, Pg – 1041
68 Punjab Bye Laws for commercial buildings Maximum permissible ground coverage is 40% in commercial.Height- Unlimited, if there is any airport in the district, then special permission is takenfrom the Airport Authority of India.F.A.R.-1.75Parking- 3 E.C.S. / 100sq m. covered area on all the floorsFor open parking,1 E.C.S.-23 sq m.For stilt or ground floor parking,1 E.C.S.-28sq m.For basement parking,1 E.C.S.-32 sq m.Stilt & basement parking will not considered in F.A.R.Stilt floor’s height must not exceed 8’6” beyond the building block except in the set-backsprovided it is used for parking only.Multi level basement will be allowed behind the building in zoned area exceptin set-backs provided it is proposed for parking purposes only and satisfy thePublic Health and Structural requirements.Parking grid in basements & stilt floors must be between sq. feet.Source- Policies in Punjab, page no.-572, 573
69 MultiplexMultiplex complex shall mean an integrated entertainment and shoppingcentre/complex having atleast three cinema halls with total minimum seating capacity of1,000 seats, set up in an area of 4,000 Sq Yards or above but not be more than 3 acres (Balance land can be used for parking and green belt) with minimum investment to the tune of Rs crore including the cost of land, if owned by the developer.However, investment on items other than land would not be less than Rs. 15 crore. Apart from Cinema Halls the entertainment area may have restaurant, fast food outlet, video games parlors, pubs, bowling alleys, health spa/centers and other recreational activities. The shopping centre may have retail outlets, showrooms, shopping mall, pharmacy etc.FAR of 2.0 shall be allowed for Multiplex sites.If at any stage, FAR is increased at any level after the auction of the site, proportionate additional price shall be chargeableMaximum ground coverage shall be 40%.Direct access on a road not less than 80 ft. wide with a road frontage of notless than 100 ft.Source- Policies in Punjab, page no.- 567,582
70 Land UseMultiplexes will be permitted on land earmarked for commercial use or cinemas in any master plan or development plan prepared by the Punjab Urban Planning & Development Authority (PUDA) or any local body. They will also be permitted on land on which no land use restrictions are applicable under any law.Provision of basementThe construction of double level basement shall be compulsory for parking and the entire area of the basement shall be used for parking purposes only except the areaused for Air-conditioning plant and lift room which in no case shall exceed 10% of the area. Basement shall be permitted only under the built up area at the ground level.ParkingAt present the norms of parking for multiplexes 1ECS for 40 Sq. Yds. Of covered area on all floors whereas as per NBC the norms for parking work out to be 1 ECS for 44 Square Yards assuming that in a multiplex 60% area is used for commercial, 25% for cinema and 15% for food courts. After detailed deliberations considering the road network available in the towns of Punjab and NBC provisions, it was decided that the existing norms in the Municipal Building Byelaws for parking and other provisions of Multiplexes are in order and should be retained as such.Source- Policies in Punjab, page no.-571,582
71 Filling Stations and Filling-cum-Service Station The term "Filling Station'' as used in this Guide refers to a place of retailbusiness engaged in the supplying and dispensing of Gasoline (Motor-fuel), andMotor-oil essential for the normal operation of automobiles.The term "Filling-cum-Service Station" as used in this Guide refers to a place ofretail business engaged in supplying goods and services essential for the normaloperations of automobiles. These include dispensing Gasoline and Motor-oil; thesale and service of tyres, batteries and other automobile accessories andreplacement items and washing and lubrication. They do not include body orfender work, painting or other major motor repairs and over-hauling.Gasoline Filing Stations are not recommended in local shopping areas. InCentral Business Districts, they are preferably located on the fringes of thecentre or on the traffic routes to such centres at suitable locations along thehighway. In general Commercial areas they should be carefully located alongtraffic routes.Minimum size for Filling-cum-Service Station and Filling Station shall be as per therecommendations of TCPO and shall not be less than 30m X 30m in case of FillingStation and 36 mX30m in case of Filling-cum-Service Station.Source- Policies in Punjab, page no.-352,353,358
72 Maximum ground coverage permitted both under canopy and building shall not exceed 35% of the total area of the site.Maximum area permitted to be covered under the building shall notexceed 10% of the total area of the site.The area of the canopy shall not be more than 25% of the total area of thesite.In case of a main road provided along with a service road or a marginal access road, the access to the station should be provided from the service or marginal access road and not from the main road.In case of a main road provided without a service road or a marginal access, its minimum width must be 40’Siting of Stations on road curves or bends is a safety hazard and should beavoided.The minimum distance of the property line of the Filling Station from the Central line of the road must not be less than metres or half the proposed right-of-way of the road, whichever, is more. In case of national highways, state highways and major roads in urban areas they should be set back so as to be outside the ultimate right-of-way of the highway along which it is to be located. However, variations can be approved in special cases if allowed by the competent authority after complete investigations.Source- Policies in Punjab, page no.-375, 354
73 Station Pumps and the road. For easy flow of vehicles into and out of the Station a minimum frontage of30.00 metres shall be provided with wide and easy entrance and exit curbs.Vehicles entering and leaving the Station should be fully visible to the traffic on themain road and there should not be any obstruction to view between the FillingStation Pumps and the road.The station area should have clear sign-boards (‘IN' & E X I T' boards) properlyindicating the approach and exit from the premises and these should be installedwithin the site without interfering with the right of way of the highway. Thesesign boards should be provided with proper lighting arrangements in the night. Anyother sign boards or bill boards should also be stated within the premises withoutdistracting the traffic along the highway.As a general rule, the clear distance between two adjacent fuel filling stations (thesewill also include fuel filling-cum-service stations) should not be less than 300 metres.There should be sufficient standing space inside the fuel filling station for vehicles towait for their turn. In order to reduce the number of waiting vehicles, it is desirableto have oil. air. toilets etc. installed at some distance from the fuel filling pump so thatvehicles which have been refuelled can immediately be drawn away from the fuelpump. There should be adequate drainage arrangements in the fuel filling stationso that the surface water does not flow over the road but is collected insuitable drains and led away to a natural course.Source- Policies in Punjab, page no.-355,353,360,362.
74 when measured from the side boundary of the plot. Set BacksFront set back of the canopy shall not be less than 6 metres However, frontset back in case of building shall not be less than 10 metres from the frontboundary of the site.Side set backs in case of Canopy/Building shall not be less than 6 metreswhen measured from the side boundary of the plot.Rear set back of the canopy and building shall not be less than 4 metres.All the distances in case of set backs mentioned above shall be reckonedfrom the boundary of the siteHeightThe maximum height permitted for canopy/building shall be restricted to20 feet inclusive of the parapet.Number of storeys permitted within the built up area shall not exceed oneNo mezzanine or basement within or under the built up area shall bepermitted.Boundary WallHeight of the side and Rear boundary walls shall be restricted to 4 feet.No boundary wall shall be constructed on the front.Storage TanksUnderground fuel storage tanks within the site shall be permitted providedthe minimum distance from the boundary wall shall be 1.5 metres in caseof tanks being buried in earth without any masonry pit around them.Source- Policies in Punjab, page no.-376,377
75 Hotel It must have a minimum plot size of 5000 sq. mt. Frontage should be atleast 200 ft. minimum 80ft. wide road.It should have a management tie up or franchise arrangement with National / International hotel chain of repute having at least five hotels consisting of minimum of 50 rooms each in India /abroad.The land owner can have joint venture/Development agreement /revenue sharing arrangement with the developer / Hotelier.F.A.R is allowed upto 3 ( 20-25% of this FAR can be used for commercial purposes)Ground coverage upto 50%.Parking -1 ECS per 100 sq. mt. of covered area.Source- Policies in Punjab, page no.-426,427
76 20’x 80” - includes a corridor of width 8’3” on front & rear side. S.C.O./ S.C.F. bye laws20’x 80” - includes a corridor of width 8’3” on front & rear side.’16’6”x 75 - includes a corridor of width 8’3” on front side only.16’6” x 66’ - includes a corridor of width 8’3” on front side only.Number of stories allowed – 4.Maximum height of building-48’ 6”.1 basement is allowed.Provision for air light and ventilation to be 10% of the basement area.Area of the basement not to be counted towards FAR.Basement shall have a clear height of 7’-6” from floor to sofit to the beam and height of ceiling shall not exceed 8’-3”.10% of the basement area shall be permitted for depression for installation of AC plants. However, no generator shall be permitted to be installed in the basement.Booths bye laws10’x 30’ - includes a corridor of width 7’ on front side only.8’3” x 24’9” - includes a corridor of width 7’ on front side only.Number of stories allowed – 1.Maximum height of building-12’.Provision for air light and ventilation to be 5% of the basement area.The shop’s width: depth ratio must be greater than 1:2.Source- Policies in Punjab, page no.-433
77 CONSUMER BEHAVIOURThe people surveyed seem show that the consumers value the availabilityOf multiple services at a place rather the ambience or entertainment associated with the place.
78 The people surveyed seem to fall in one of the 2 categories – those who shop for products as and when the need arises and also those who visit a store once/twice a month and stock up. The markets need to decide on a strategy to target the buyers who shop as and when the need arises as such people greatly value convenience and usually buy such products from the nearby local vendors.
79 This chart emphasizes the traditional value seeking behavior of the Indian consumer. Any retail format aiming to target the masses must be seen as providing the best value for the consumer’s money.
80 Another aspect that emerged was the strong preference of the buyer for tried and tested brands and also his penchant for variety at the point of purchase. Traditionally, kirana stores are known to keep an inventory of brands that their regular customers usually buy (e.g. Parachute Hair Oil) while malls stock up on a wide range of brands in the same category. While the customers do appreciate a large variety to choose from, the more popular brands should be displayed prominently to attract them.
81 Problems and Issues Traffic Congestion The problem of traffic congestion is particularly peculiar in the mornings and in the evenings when the people go and come back from their work respectively. These are known as the peak traffic hours. Today due to ever icreasing vehicles on our roads, it has become a major problem to tackle especially in a commercial centre like a CBD, where the major working class commutes in the peak hours. The main issues related to this problem are:Narrow streetsUnauthorized roadside parking.Ever increasing number of car ownership.Grid Lock- The inability to move on a transport network in a grid plan.Suggested Solutions could be:Ring Roads and Bye-passesFlyovers and Urban motorwaysMultistory car parksPedestrianization of streetsCongestion Charge Zone Concept: in this motorists are charged a fee for driving in the congestion charge zone to avoid traffic jams in such heavily loaded areas.Park and Ride: are car parks with connections to public transport that allow commuters and others wishing to travel into city centres to leave their personal vehicles in a car park and transfer to a bus, rail system (rapid transit, light rail or commuter rail), or carpool for the rest of their trip.Source:
82 Microclimate and Climate Responsive Architecture A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area.Microclimates exist, for example, near bodies of water which may cool the local atmosphere, or in heavily urban areas where brick, concrete, and asphalt absorb the sun's energy, heat up, and reradiate that heat to the ambient air.Urban Heat IslandAn urban heat island (UHI) is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. The main causes of this modification are:Modification of the land surface by urban development.Waste heat generated by energy usage.Due to increased population levels.Climate Responsive ArchitectureArchitecture that effectively responds to the climate provides substantially improved natural comfort and energy efficiency. Responding to the daily and seasonal changes in the sun and breeze patterns of the site is an integral part of sustainable architecture. The way each of these climatic features is handled depends on the climatic region in which the building is located. Each climatic region requires a different design response. Climate responsive design is achieved through careful consideration of five factors:OrientationSolar Access and ShadingVentilationInsulationBuilding MaterialsSource:
83 PollutionCentral Business districts are the significant areas to face the problem of pollution of all sorts (Air, water, soil, noise etc.). It is very important to deal with the problem wisely so as to make such high density urban areas more healthy and livable. The main effects of an excessively polluted environment are:Unhealthy working classUnhygenic surroundings and the working conditionsUnpleasant site of the urban district as a wholeFinally loss of the commercial activity for which the centre is designed.Suggested Solutions could be:Laws against the dumping of litter and sewage in the surroundingsProvision of litter bins and road sweeping (include a relatively recent addition of different types of bins to encourage recycling)Clean Air ActsVehicles which run on cleaner fuels.Encouraging public and mass transport.Enhanced solid-waste management programsIncreased planting of trees and plants i.e. provision of widespread green areas in the urban areasStrict implementation of bye-laws with special emphasis on ground coverage and F.A.R.Source:
84 Lack of Space and High Cost of Land As the central business district forms the hub for all the commercial activities in the city, hence the land prices are expected to be high in this case. And with the bid rent theory governing the cost of ownership and tenancy, occupation of a space becomes an expensive affair. The related issues are:Small retailers are forced away.High cost of ownership compared to the rental revenue.Business losses to the small sector occupants.Quick occupation and vacancy of holdings due to lower margin of profits.Clone town is a term (esp. used in the U.K.) for a town where the High Street or other major shopping areas are significantly dominated by Chain stores, which can bear the high cost of ownership and can ensure the guaranty required for such high cost tenancy. This phenomenon is particularly damaging to the society because of the removal of the diversity.Some of the suggested solutions could be:Providing space to tenants at competitive rates after studying the feasibility of the retail businesses and the offices.There should be a check on the promoters by the authorities so that making money is not their sole aim.The concept of Clone Town should be discouraged in order to provide variety to the people at competitive prices.Source:
85 Urban DeclineAs CBDs compete with out of town centres they experience decline especially in terms of:Vacant propertiesVandalismLack of maintenance in the common areas.No interest shown by the authorities after the commissioning of the project.Growth of internet etc means CBD may no longer be the attractive location it once was, especially for those such as offices who do not need to attract passing trade.So care should be taken that such projects which are turned into reality by the huge monetary investments should not face decline as discussed above. Some of the attempted solutions are:Planning mixed use of land to the farthest extent possible. This facilitates the whole complex to be lively at all times.Providing properties at reasonable prices with appropriate maintenance so that the problem of vacant properties can be addressed.Provision of enough entertainment and recreational facilities so as to attract more number of people, thus promoting business opportunities.Source: