What is First Aid? The immediate care for an injured person until medical assistance arrives.
First Things to Do 1.Check the Surroundings a.“Is it safe for you?” b.Move victim if needed 2.Call for Help a.You call or ask someone else to 1. If major, Call 911 3.Care for the Person a.Never leave the person until medical assistance arrives b.First Aid/Check for Breathing c.Keep Victim and Yourself CALM!!
Different Common Injuries Broken, Dislocated, and Fractured Bones Cuts and Scrapes Burns Shock Heart Attacks and Strokes Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Hypothermia Head and Neck Injuries Choking Unconscious; Breathing and Non breathing
Broken, Dislocated, and Fractured Bones 1.First Aid Steps 1-3 2.Splint injury as found; DO NOT MOVE!! 3.Use towels/blankets to rap area 4.IF OPEN WOUND: 1.Control Bleeding 2.Attend to Injured Bone
Cuts and Scrapes 1.First Aid Steps 1-3 2.Superficial Cuts 1. Apply pressure to stop bleeding 2. Clean area and bandage 3. Extremity Cuts- hold above heart 4. Deep Cuts- go to ER 5. Bleeding Wounds- apply pressure!! 6. Penetrating Objects- DO NOT REMOVE! and immobilize object
Burns 1 st - minor burn affecting top layer of skin 1. Apply cold water/rag off and on 2. DON’T RUB OR APPLY JELLY-LIKE PRODUCTS 3. Keep clean from infection 2 nd - burn affecting top and underlying skin 1. Apply cold compress 2. Apply clean and loose cloth/gauze 3. DON’T POP BLISTERS 3 rd - burn destroying all layers of skin and nerves 1. Call 911 2. Lightly cover with sterile gauze or sheet; don’t tape down 3. If not breathing, perform CPR
Shock Insufficient blood flow to the body 1.First Aid Steps 1-3 2.Lay victim down, tilting head to one side 3.Loosen clothing, keep victim warm 4.Don’t give liquids-moisten lips if needed 5.Elevate legs if no leg injury is suspected
Heart Attack 1.First Aid Steps 1-3 2.Don’t allow anything in mouth unless prescribed for heart condition 3.If failed breathing, CPR Stroke 1.First Aid 1-3 2.F.A.S.T
Heat Exhaustion Exposed to high temperatures + dehydration Drink plenty of fluids Move to a cool area
Heat Stroke Failure to cool down body; stops sweating and can be unconscious 1.Move to a cool place 2.Cool skin off a. armpits, neck, and groin area 3.Elevate feet 4.Give sips of fluids (H2O or sports drinks)
Hypothermia Looses heat faster than it can produce it 1.Call 911! 2.Remove wet clothing to warm up victim a. armpits, neck and groins 3. Lay down victim 4. DON’T IMMERSE BODY/PARTS IN HOT WATER
Head/Neck/Back Injuries 1.First Aid Steps 1-3 2.Assume a neck injury with any head injuries 3.Keep victim still and neck immobilized 4.DON’T move head if performing CPR 5.If you need to move victim, stabilize neck and head AND move body on a flat surface.
Choking 1. Conscious- a. First Aid Steps 1-3 b. Ask them if they need help c. Hold fist and push in and up under rib cage until unlodged 2. Unconscious- a. First Aid Steps 1-3 b. Lay them down and tilt chin to open airway c. Give abdominal thrusts to lodge out material d. Remove object if you can see it e. If unresponsive, perform chest compressions until consciousness or when medical assistance arrives
Unconscious 1.Try to rouse victim with different senses to waken; if no waking, move to #2 2.Check for Breathing (chest raise and mouth breathing); if no breathing, move to #3 3.Chest Compressions w/ABCs; continue until victim breathes or medical assistance arrives a.30 compressions b.A-Airways c.B- Breathing d.C-Circulation 4. If recovered, place them on their side