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The Digestive System Human Biology Ms. Ghtaura.

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1 The Digestive System Human Biology Ms. Ghtaura

2 What’s happening? INGESTION:
the process of taking a (food) into the or DIGESTION: the and breaking down of ingested food into particles, then into small enough to move through cells and into the environment. ABSORPTION: the passage of digested nutrients from the gut lumen into the blood or lymph, which distributes them through the body. ELIMINATION: the of residues from the body. Ms. Ghtaura

3 physical breakdown Ms. Ghtaura

4 Tongue: has taste buds so we can enjoy our food
3 salivary glands in the mouth Parotid glands Sublingual glands Submandibular glands Mouth food Tongue: has taste buds so we can enjoy our food Teeth: for chewing or so food is convenient for . After mastication, our food form into a mass called Ms. Ghtaura

5 Pharynx – region the mouth and the esophagus made of a long tube
Epiglottis – flap of elastic cartilage tissue attached to the entrance of the Glottis is the opening to the larynx Esophagus – bolus is passed into this tube from the to stomach Ms. Ghtaura

6 Swallowing and Peristalsis
Ms. Ghtaura

7 Stomach Stomach – a thick walled, J-shaped organ which food until ready to enter the Entrance of food from the esophagus to stomach is marked by sphincter Sphincter – muscles that encircle tubes and act as valves (saloon doors) Churning – muscular walls of the stomach , mixing the food with juice Ms. Ghtaura

8 peristalsis happens throughout the gut
Chemical digestion is aiding in the overall digestion of food as discussed in the next section As this is happening, food is being pushed along the digestive track (small and large intestine) rhythmic muscle movements The bolus leaves the stomach in the form of ‘chyme’ Chyme is squeezed through the pyloric sphincter to the duodenum of the small intestine Ms. Ghtaura

9 chemical breakdown Ms. Ghtaura

10 Salvia First chemical breakdown occurs in the mouth as food turns into bolus 3 salivary glands in the mouth glands Endocrine glands = secretes the products (hormones) directly into the blood rather than into a duct Exocrine = secretes products into a duct that can directly lead to external environments Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce (neutral pH) Saliva is made up of an enzyme called and water Amylase breaks down polysaccharides into (disaccharide) Salivary amylase + H20 Ms. Ghtaura

11 Stomach Pepsin Protein + H20 Peptides
The stomach contains millions of gastric glands which make gastric juices Gastric juice is made up of pepsinogen, HCl and mucus. A think layer of mucus protects the lining of the stomach from HCl If the HCl penetrates this lining an ulcer can result HCl in the stomach has two primary roles: Activates pepsinogen into pepsin (a protease) This happens since active pepsin may destroy proteins in the gastric cells, so its important that it remains in the form on pepsinogen until it is secreted out of the gastric cells Keeps the environment of the stomach at pH 2 to kill bacteria present in most food Pepsin breaks down proteins in the following manner: Pepsin Protein + H20 Peptides Ms. Ghtaura

12 In the Duodenum As the chyme is being pushed into the duodenum, pancreatic juices (pH 7.5 to 8.5), and bile are also being secreted into the Hence, the duodenum is the site for many chemical breakdowns during digestion Ms. Ghtaura

13 Liver bile salts Fat Fat Droplets Largest gland in the body
Produces (which contains bilirubin and bile salts) Bile is stored in the Bile fat into fat droplets in the duodenum Fat droplets have a larger surface area available to be further bile salts Fat Fat Droplets Takes a while for your body to adjust without your gall bladder, but it is possible to have it removed and still live a normal life. Ms. Ghtaura

14 Pancreas Is an organ in the digestive system Is an and gland
Secretes the enzymes: , , and These enzymes are produced in the pancreas and are released into the duodenum as pancreatic juice Pancreatic juice is also known to contain basic sodium bicarbonate ( ) which functions in: acidic chyme Providing a basic pH for optimal pancreatic enzyme function Endocrine: insulin Exocrine: pancreatic juices Ms. Ghtaura

15 Pancreas polysaccharide + H20 disaccharides
Pancreatic amylase breaks down polysaccharides into molecules Since the salivary amylase may have not this breakdown in the mouth (depends on how long you chew your food) the pancreatic amylase makes up for this by completing the same digestion in the . Endocrine: insulin Exocrine: pancreatic juices Pancreatic amylase polysaccharide + H20 disaccharides Ms. Ghtaura

16 Pancreas + H20 Pancreatic trypsin ( ) also breaks down proteins into
Since the pepsin may have not completed this breakdown in the the pancreatic trypsin makes up for this by completing the same digestion in the . Trypsin exists in the pancreatic cells as trypsinogen. Upon being release into the duodenum, it is activated into trypsin so it can break down proteins Endocrine: insulin Exocrine: pancreatic juices Pancreatic trypsin + H20 Ms. Ghtaura

17 Pancreas + H20 + Pancreatic lipase further breaks down fat
Bile helps break down fats into fat , which exposes more surface area for to act on Each triglyceride molecule (neutral fat) in a fat droplet is then broken down into 3 fatty acids and a 1 glycerol molecule These broken down triglycerides are small enough to be into the small intestine. Endocrine: insulin Exocrine: pancreatic juices Pancreatic lipase + H Ms. Ghtaura

18 Small Intestine Primary functions:
absorption of nutrients into the and systems. Further chemical breakdown of proteins and carbohydrates Named for its diameter (though it is longer in length than the large intestine) The inside of the small intestine has like projections called which increase the surface area for of nutrients Each villus is lined with epithelial cells, which have microvilli structures on their Ms. Ghtaura

19 Small Intestine The small intestine is made up of the: Duodenum –
Jejunum – Ileum – Chemical break down continues in the duodenum while the rest of the small intestine is involved primarily in Ms. Ghtaura

20 Small intestine + H20 acids
Light micrograph of small intestine Peptidases are also a type of which complete the digestion of proteins to Peptidases are found in the cell membrane of the epithelial cells lining the As the cross into cells, the break them down into Then, the amino acids enter the cells peptidase + H acids Ms. Ghtaura

21 Small intestine Light micrograph of small intestine Maltase is an enzyme which completes the digestion of maltose into to glucose molecules Maltases are found in the cell membrane of the cells lining the As the maltose molecules try to cross into , the maltase breaks them down into two glucose Glucose then enters the cells There are many enzymes that break down disaccharides into monosaccharides other than maltase. One example is lactase, which breaks down lactose into maltase + H20 2 Ms. Ghtaura

22 Monosaccharides form disaccharides
There are many enzymes that break down disaccharides into monosaccharaides other than maltase. One example is , which breaks down lactose into galactose and glucose Ms. Ghtaura

23 Absorption Glucose and amino acids are directly absorbed into the blood capillaries and eventually the blood stream acids and reforms into neutral fats upon entering the epithelial cells and then enter the Lymphatic system rapidly dumps the fat into bloodstream so the lipids can be utilized all over the body (phospholipids, cholesterol) Circulating blood carries amino acids and glucose away into the body Ms. Ghtaura

24 Large Intestine The large intestine is also known as the colon The ascending colon is the junction point between the small and large intestine The cecum, , rectum and anal canal are all a part of the intestine Ms. Ghtaura

25 Large Intestine - Appendix
Some doctors argue that the appendix plays a role in human while others say its function has been lost over It is attached to the . The appendix is subject to (injury or obstruction of fecal matter) During inflammation, if the fluid content increases enough, it can burst. A deadly infection (peritonitis) can result after the appendix bursts causing hemorrhage of all organs Ms. Ghtaura

26 Large Intestine The colon absorbs , salts, and some
Inside the large intestine, there are anaerobic bacteria which break down material Anaerobic bacteria also produce and other molecules that can be absorbed and used by us. The rectum stores non-digestible material until it is ready to be The sigmoid colon enters the rectum Rectum is the last of the large intestine The rectum opens at the anus, where (expulsion of feces) occurs E.Coli is a good bacteria and helps create vitamin K2 Can survive outside the body (not anaerobic) its important we wash our hands after going to the bathroom. Ms. Ghtaura

27 Major functions of the Liver
Detoxifies blood by and poisonous Stores and fat soluble A, D, E, and K Makes plasma proteins such as and from amino acids Removes (derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin molecules) and excretes it in bile – hence the yellowish-green colour Helps regulate blood level, converting some cholesterol into salt Stores glucose as after a meal and breaks down glycogen into glucose to help maintain the glucose concentration of blood between periods If glycogen is not available, it converts amino acids and glycerol (from fats) into glucose. The liver produces urea after breaking down amino acids Ms. Ghtaura

28 Blood glucose levels The pancreas has an function, where it secretes insulin directly into the blood stream to control levels. Insulin is a hormone which causes cells (ex: liver or muscle cells) to take up  from the blood. In the liver, glucose is taken up and is stored as until needed by the body Ms. Ghtaura

29 By the end of this section, you should be able to:
Identify and give a function for each of the following: – mouth – liver – tongue – gall bladder – teeth – pancreas – salivary glands – small intestine – pharynx – appendix – epiglottis – large intestine (colon) – esophagus – rectum – cardiac sphincter – anus – stomach – pyloric sphincter – duodenum Ms. Ghtaura

30 describe swallowing and peristalsis
identify the pancreas as the source gland for insulin, and describe the function of insulin in maintaining blood sugar levels list at least six major functions of the liver explain the role of bile in the emulsification of fats describe how the small intestine is specialized for chemical and physical digestion and absorption describe the structure of the villus, including microvilli, and explain the functions of the capillaries and lacteals within it describe the functions of anaerobic bacteria in the colon Ms. Ghtaura

31 describe the role of water as a component of digestive juices
relate the following digestive enzymes to their glandular sources and describe the digestive reactions they promote: – salivary amylase – pancreatic amylase – proteases (pepsinogen, pepsin, trypsin) – lipase – peptidase – maltase describe the role of water as a component of digestive juices describe the role of sodium bicarbonate in pancreatic juice describe the role of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in gastric juice describe the role of mucus in gastric juice describe the importance of the pH level in various regions of the digestive tract Ms. Ghtaura

32 Mandatory Vocabulary absorption, anaerobic bacteria, anus, appendix, bile, capillary, cardiac sphincter, chemical digestion, digestive enzyme, digestive tract, duodenum, emulsification, epiglottis, esophagus, gall bladder, gastric juice, hydrochloric acid (HCl), insulin, intestinal juice, lacteals, large intestine (colon), lipase, liver, maltase, microvillus, nuclease, pancreas, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic juice, pepsin, pepsinogen, peptidase, peristalsis, pH, pharynx, physical digestion, protease, pyloric sphincter, rectum, salivary amylase, salivary gland, salivary juice/saliva, small intestine, sodium bicarbonate, stomach, swallowing, trypsin, villus Ms. Ghtaura

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