Presentation on theme: "Human Geo of Latin America. Latin America is generally understood to consist of the entire continent of ________________ in addition to _______,______________,"— Presentation transcript:
Latin America is generally understood to consist of the entire continent of ________________ in addition to _______,______________, and the islands of the ____________ whose inhabitants speak a __________ language. The peoples of this large area shared the experience of conquest and colonization by the __________ and ____________ from the late 15th through the 18th century as well as movements of ____________ in the early 19th century. South America Mexico Central America Caribbean Romance SpanishPortuguese Independence Fill in the 8 Blanks…
Diversity in Latin America Cultures are diverse – Each region has its own history, languages, customs, beliefs, foods, music, etc.
Diversity in Latin America Diversity in Races – Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans are largest groups – Members of these groups have intermarried and as a result, many people in Latin America have mixed ancestry and have developed unique cultures over time
“Latin America is known for its racial and ethnic diversity. Based on available estimates, about 45 million of the 500 million people in Latin America are indigenous and about 90 million (100 million if we include Haiti) are afro-descendants. This compares to about 40 million U.S. African Americans and 2.5 million American Indians.” -- PERLA (The Project on Ethnicity and Race in Latin America at Princeton University)
Native Americans Colonization started in the 1500s – Natives forced to work on plantations and in mines – Wiped out native populations by European weapons and disease Natives moved to remote regions to preserve their cultures http://blogs.plos.org/neuroanthrop ology/2011/02/09/%E2%80%98the- last-free-people-on-the- planet%E2%80%99/ Click this!
Central American & the Caribbean Spanish in Caribbean Established sugar plantations and forced natives to work them until the arrival of African slaves This has perpetuated an economy mostly based in agriculture. What are the downsides to this?
Africans Brought to Americas to work as slaves – Descendants of slaves live throughout Latin America – Specifically Brazil, Panama, and the Caribbean Islands Calypso music: island music with African and Spanish influences Capoeira: martial arts mixed with dance to hide slaves training to defend themselves
TIME OUT! Explain how colonization led to ethnic blending. What are the three main cultural groups? What did some cultural groups do to preserve their folk culture?
Religion Main religion is Roman Catholic brought over by colonizers – Blended with Native and African practices (Example: “Day of the Dead” in Mexico-blends Native American beliefs about the afterlife with Christian beliefs. 1 st Latin American Pope from Argentina! …his parents were born in Italy. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/25/i s-pope-francis-latino-new-pope- ethnicity_n_2947814.html
Cultural Controversy As a result of the blending of different cultures, Latin America has had a social class system that has often caused problems. – People with European ancestry make up higher socio-economic status groups Other culture groups have demanded equal rights and representation – 2005 Bolivia: 1 st Native American president elected
Socioeconomics in Mexico A more ideal situation
TIME OUT! Explain what the predominant religion in Latin America is and where did it come from? Describe an example of cultural blending in Latin America? Analyze how has colonialism impacted socioeconomics?
After Independence Political instability led to oligarchies (gov’t by the few) and military rule – This authoritarian rule delayed the development of democracy, which is still having effects on the region today. Mexico: – Land distribution was unfair (few rich landowners with poor peasants working on the haciendas (estates or ranches) – The Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1929 helped introduce democracy and brought political stability Redistributed land to peasants