2 Trade Unions"Trade Union" means any combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen, or between employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or businessTrade unions are formed to protect and promote the interests of their members. Their primary function is to protect the interests of workers against discrimination and unfair labor practices.
3 Objectives Representation Negotiation Voice in decisions affecting workersMember servicesEducation and trainingLegal assistanceFinancial discountsWelfare benefits
4 Functions of Trade unions (i) Militant functions(a) To achieve higher wages and better working conditions(b) To raise the status of workers as a part of industry(c) To protect labors against victimization and injustice
5 (ii) Fraternal functions To take up welfare measures for improving the morale of workersTo generate self confidence among workersTo encourage sincerity and discipline among workersTo provide opportunities for promotion and growthTo protect women workers against discrimination
6 Importance Of Trade Unions Trade unions help in accelerated pace of economic development in many ways as follows:by helping in the recruitment and selection of workers.by inculcating discipline among the workforceby enabling settlement of industrial disputes in a rational mannerby helping social adjustments. Workers have to adjust themselves to the new working conditions, the new rules and policies. Workers coming from different backgrounds may become disorganized, unsatisfied and frustrated. Unions help them in such adjustment.
7 Contd…. Social responsibilities of trade unions include: promoting and maintaining national integration by reducing the number of industrial disputesincorporating a sense of corporate social responsibility in workersachieving industrial peace
8 Reasons for Joining Trade Unions Greater Bargaining PowerMinimize DiscriminationSense of SecuritySense of ParticipationSense of BelongingnessPlatform for self expressionBetterment of relationships
9 Causes of Industrial Disputes The causes of industrial disputes can be broadly classified into two categories:economic causesThe economic causes will include issues relating to compensation like wages, bonus, allowances, and conditions for work, working hours, leave and holidays without pay, unjust layoffs and retrenchments.non-economic causesThe non economic factors will include victimization of workers, ill treatment by staff members, sympathetic strikes, political factors, indiscipline etc.
10 StrikesA strike is a very powerful weapon used by trade unions and other labor associations to get their demands accepted. It generally involves quitting of work by a group of workers for the purpose of bringing the pressure on their employer so that their demands get accepted. When workers collectively cease to work in a particular industry, they are said to be on strike.
11 Causes of strikes Strikes can occur because of the following reasons: Dissatisfaction with company policySalary and incentive problemsIncrement not up to the markWrongful discharge or dismissal of workmenWithdrawal of any concession or privilegeHours of work and rest intervalsLeaves with wages and holidaysBonus, profit sharing, Provident fund and gratuityRetrenchment of workmen and closure of establishmentDispute connected with minimum wages
12 TYPES OF STRIKE Economic Strike Sympathetic Strike General Strike Sit down StrikeSlow Down StrikeSick-out (or sick-in )Wild cat strikes
13 Trade Union in Malaysia While the Malaysian constitution guarantees the rights of all Malaysians to form and join a trade union, there are several restrictions imposed by the laws relating to trade unions, i.e. the Trade Unions Act 1959 (TUA) and the Industrial Relations Act 1967 (IRA)
14 The restrictive Trade Unions Act does not allow general unions for workers. Membership of any trade union is confined to only those who are employees of a particular industry, establishment, trade and occupation. Example a bank employee could only be a member of a banking union, but cannot be a member of an airline union or teachers union.
15 For enterprise or in-house union, membership is confined to employees of that particular establishment or company - employees of the company’s subsidiary or an associate company could not join that union.
16 The TUA protects workers from being victimised by an Employer for joining a union. However, the same section of an act states explicitly that an employer may dismiss, demote, transfer or refuse to promote a worker on other grounds. However it has not stopped employers form dismissing trade union officials for writing Union circulars
17 Temporary workers, contract workers including foreign workers could actually join union as members. However, most of the workers were reluctant to join a union for fear that their contract might not be renewed or work permit cancelled, making it difficult for a union to represent them.
18 Generally managerial, executive, confidential and security employees cannot be members of a non-executive union, nor can they be represented by a union for the purpose of collective bargaining.