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AP World History: The Industrial Revolution

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1 AP World History: The Industrial Revolution
Period 5

2 I What Was the Industrial Revolution?
The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people’s homes, using hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of manufactured goods and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment and living conditions for the poor and working classes.

3 II How it Began Before the Industrial Revolution, most people resided in small, rural farm communities. Life was difficult; incomes were meager, and malnourishment and disease were common. People produced the bulk of their own food, clothing, furniture and tools. Most manufacturing was done in homes or small, rural shops, using hand tools or simple machines. This gave rise to the term “cottage industry”. B) A number of factors contributed to Britain’s role as the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. For one, it had great deposits of coal and iron ore, which proved essential for industrialization. Additionally, Britain was a politically stable society, as well as the world’s leading colonial power, which meant its colonies could serve as a source for raw materials, as well as a marketplace for manufactured goods (mercantilism). C) As demand for British goods increased, merchants needed more cost-effective methods of production, which led to the rise of mechanization and the factory system.


5 III The Enclosure Movement in Britain
“The Enclosure Movement was a push in the 18th and 19th centuries to take land that had formerly been owned in common by all members of a village, or at least available to the public for grazing animals and growing food, and change it to privately owned land, usually with walls, fences or hedges around it. The most well-known Enclosure Movements were in the British Isles. It began in the 12th century, but it became much more common in the 1700s, and in the next century Parliament passed the General Enclosure Act of 1801 and the Enclosure Act of 1845, making enclosures of certain lands possible throughout England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. The English government and aristocracy started enclosing land claiming it would allow for better raising of crops and animals (particularly sheep for their wool). They claimed that large fields could be farmed more efficiently than individual plots allotted from common land -- and the profit could be kept by the aristocrats who now owned the legally confiscated land. Some claim this was the beginning of commercial farming.”

6 Enclosure Movement

7 The Opening of the Bridgewater Canal 1761 CE by Ford Madox Brown, England

8 IV Innovation A) In the 1700s, a series of innovations led to increasing productivity, while requiring less human energy. In 1764, Englishman James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, a machine that enabled an individual to produce multiple spools of threads simultaneously. By the time of Hargreaves’ death, there were over 20,000 spinning jennys in use across Britain. The power loom, which mechanized the process of weaving cloth, was developed in the 1780s by English inventor Edmund Cartwright. Power Loom Spinning Jenny

9 Innovation Continued…
B) Developments in the iron industry also played a central role in the Industrial Revolution. In the early 18th century, Englishman Abraham Darby discovered a cheaper, easier method to produce cast iron, using a coke-fueled furnace (as opposed to charcoal-fired) furnace. In the 1850s, British engineer Henry Bessemer developed the first inexpensive process for mass-producing steel. Both iron and steel became essential materials, used to make everything from appliances, tools and machines, to ships, buildings and infrastructure. C) The steam engine was also integral to industrialization. In 1712, Englishman Thomas Newcomen developed the first practical steam engine (which was used primarily to pump water out of mines). By the 1770s, Scottish inventor James Watt had improved on Newcomen’s work, and the steam engine went on to power machinery, locomotives and ships during the Industrial Revolution.

10 The First Cast Iron Bridge, Coalbrookdale, 1779

11 The Bessemer Process The Bessemer Process was the first inexpensive process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. It is the removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation wit air being blown through the molten iron. The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten.

12 Bessemer Steel Workers

13 V Transportation A) Before the advent of the steam engine, raw materials and finished goods were hauled and distributed via horse-drawn wagons, and by boats along canals and rivers. B) In the early 1800s, American Robert Fulton built the first commercially successful steamboat, and by the mid-19th century, steamships were carrying freight across the Atlantic. As steam-powered ships were making their debut, the steam locomotive was also coming into use. C) In the early 1800s, British engineer Richard Trevithick constructed the first railway steam locomotive. In 1830, England’s Liverpool and Manchester Railway became the first to offer regular, timetabled passenger services. By 1850, Britain had more than 6,000 miles of railroad track! D) In 1820, Scottish engineer John McAdam developed a new process for road construction. His technique, macadam, resulted in roads that were smoother, more durable and less muddy.

14 Impact of the Railroad, Britain

15 Steam Tractor

16 Steam Locomotive, Canada


18 Steam Ship, South Africa

19 Macadam Road, California

20 VI Communication and a Changing Economy
In 1837, two Brits, William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented the first commercial electrical telegraph. In 1866, a telegraph cable was successfully laid across the Atlantic. The Industrial Revolution also saw the rise of banks and industrial financiers, as well as a factory system dependent on owners and managers. A stock exchange was established in London in the 1770s; the New York Stock Exchange was founded in the early 1790s. In 1776, Scottish social philosopher Adam Smith, who is regarded as the founder of modern economics, published “The Wealth of Nations.” In it, Smith promoted an economic system based on free enterprise, the private ownership of means of production, and lack of government interference. Morse-Vail Telegraph Key, 1845

21 Major Telegraph Lines, 1891

22 New York Stock Exchange Today

23 VII A Changing Society The Industrial Revolution brought about a greater volume and variety of factory-produced goods and raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes. However, life for the poor and working classes continued to be filled with challenges. Wages for those who labored in factories were low and working conditions could be dangerous and monotonous. Unskilled workers had little job security and were easily replaceable. Children were part of the labor force and often worked long hours and were used for such highly hazardous tasks as cleaning the machinery. In the early 1860s, an estimated one-fifth of the workers in Britain’s textile industry were younger than 15. Industrialization also meant that some craftspeople were replaced by machines. Additionally, urban, industrialized areas were unable to keep pace with the flow of arriving workers from the countryside, resulting in inadequate, overcrowded housing and polluted, unsanitary living conditions in which disease was rampant. In cities many poor laborers lived together in tenements (crowded apartment buildings). Conditions for the working-class began to gradually improve by the later part of the 19th century, as the government instituted various labor reforms and workers gained the right to form trade unions. The word "luddite" refers to a person who is opposed to technological change. The term is derived from a group of early 19th century English workers who attacked factories and destroyed machinery as a means of protest. They were supposedly led by a man named Ned Ludd, though he may have been an apocryphal figure.

24 Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830

25 Child Coal Miners, 1907

26 “Match” Girls “Match girls worked long hours in the factories (usually from 6 AM to 6 PM) with only two short breaks. They were not allowed to talk or even sit down while they worked (otherwise they would be fined or fired). The girls only made 4 shillings a day, but they were also heavily fined if they dropped a match, talked to each other, sat down, arrived late, or went to the bathroom without permission (sometimes they went home with no pay at all). Beatings were not uncommon at the factories as well.”

27 Tenement NYC 1890 by Jacob Riis

28 Stereotype of the Factory Owner

29 Luddites

30 VIII The Industrial Revolution Spreads
“The British enacted legislation to prohibit the export of their technology and skilled workers; however, they had little success in this regard. Industrialization spread from Britain to other European countries, including Belgium, France and Germany, and to the United States. By the mid-19th century, industrialization was well-established throughout the western part of Europe and America’s northeastern region. By the early 20th century, the U.S. had become the world’s leading industrial nation.”

31 IX Was Malthus Right? A) Thomas Malthus (1766 – 1834) was an English economist. B) He argued that increases in population would eventually diminish the ability of the world to feed itself. “The superior power of population cannot be checked without producing misery or vice.” “Population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every 25 years or increases in a geometrical ratio.” - Thomas Malthus

32 Malthus Continued… “Thomas Malthus was an employee of the British East India Company who hit upon the idea that food production increases arithmetically while population increases exponentially. Thus, argued Malthus in his infamous 1798 “Essay on the Principle of Population,” it was a mathematical certainty that the world was on a crash course for demographic disaster. The problem for Malthus… is that they have in each and every generation failed to understand that the question of population and resources is not a zero-sum game… human ingenuity has developed technologies and techniques that have helped to expand the arable land for farming and agriculture and increased the number of crops that can be grown in each acre, even as the number of people required to work that land has fallen. Every generation a new crop of Malthusians emerge to argue that this time the expansion of the food supply will fail and the world will be plunged into chaos, and in each and every generation the predicted apocalypse has failed to arrive… Unfortunately we don’t have to dig very deep to see the dark side of this Malthusian bent. In 1969, Ehrlich stated that if voluntary birth control methods did not curb population growth fast enough for his liking, governments might have to consider “the addition of a temporary sterilant [to prevent pregnancy] to staple food or to the water supply.” In 1972 UN climate guru Maurice Strong argued that governments should license couples to have children. In 1977, Obama “science czar” John Holdren mused once again about the possibility of forced abortions and sterilants in the water supply as a way of curbing population growth...

33 Malthus Continued… Interestingly, even the UN’s own population and fertility estimates show that overpopulation is not the real problem! The UN is projecting a world population of 9 billion by 2050 and a leveling off after that point. The global fertility rate (children per couple) was 4.95 in It was 2.79 in It is expected to be 1.63 in To put that in perspective, the replacement fertility rate that would be required to maintain the population at current levels is projected to be 2.1 in developed countries and as high as 3.4 in developing countries due to higher child mortality rates. With a global fertility rate of 1.63 by the end of the century, the human race will be essentially breeding itself out of existence. Quite contrary to the projections of the Malthusians, the very real danger to the economy and the species itself is the very real demographic shift that happens in a shrinking population. Population is still growing because of high fertility rates in previous generations and longer life spans, but declining fertility rates will turn into population decline in a number of nations within the century should these trends hold. The countries of the developed world, with their fertility rates already in decline, will be the first to experience the effects of this transition. Countries like Greece, Russia, Taiwan, Lithuania, South Korea and others that already have a fertility rate below 1.5 and little influx of immigrants are either already declining in population or are expected to within a decade.” –James Corbett, 2012

34 Industrial Revolution and the Great Divergence Between East and West by Shamkhal Abilov, 2011
David S. Landes, the emeritus professor of economics at Harvard University, writes that during Medieval Ages the Orient, mainly China, had possessed a power-driven spinning machine and industrial techniques centuries before the Industrial Revolution occurred in the Occident. The wealth and economic growth of China during that time made it one of the big commercial centers of the world trade; the Chinese practiced coal production for iron smelting and industrial use, and also “were turning out perhaps as many as 125,000 tons of pig iron by the late eleventh century”. He lists various inventions considered industrial priorities in China during that period and not in Europe, such as: the wheelbarrow, the stirrup, the rigid horse collar, the compass, paper, printing, gunpowder, and porcelain. These, however, were the key components for the Industrial Revolution in Europe later. In comparison to China, though, during the Medieval Ages European societies were living in backwardness, their economic situation was in ruin, and Europe was suffering from a great number of foreign invasions… Despite the privileges of China and the greater technological development it had possessed for centuries, Europe entered into world history with immense developments in technology, later identified as the Industrial Revolution by world historians. For that reason, we find one of the questions that scholars of the subject greatly discuss today…

35 Great Divergence Continued…
… if China had a priority over the rest of world in terms of technological development and economic-sense for almost a millennium, and was in the same development level with the most-developed parts of Europe around the eighteenth century, why, then, did the Industrial Revolution occur in England, and not in China? I think it is erroneous to ask why “China failed”, because the technological development that China possessed during the European Industrial Revolution did not stagnate; rather, it was on the same path in the eighteenth century as it was in medieval age, but it was the case that technological development did not revolutionize the Chinese economy as it did in England… Pomeranz, in turn, also determines coal as a central factor of the Industrial Revolution in England. Easy access to large sources of coal is, according to his argumentation, considered one of the vital factors for England’s revolution. He argues that, unlike China, much of the coal was relatively close to the major population and industrial regions of England, and England had accessible deposits of coal near manufacturing centers. Regarding China, its coal deposits were far from the centre, located in Shaanxi, several hundred landlocked miles from the industrialized Yangzi Delta… Frank also sees the great distance of China’s coal deposits as a major reason for the “failure” of Chinese technology.

36 HW Questions Fill in your Period 5 Chart for the Industrial Revolution. In your opinion, what were the two most important developments in the Industrial Revolution? Explain your answer. Why did Thomas Malthus argue that industrialization would lead to an increased population? Why do some people today argue that this viewpoint is dangerous and wrong? What is your opinion? According to Shamkhal Abilov, why did the Industrial Revolution not start in China? Do you agree or disagree?

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