HALOGENS Halogens (halogen family) are in Group 17 or 7A.
Who is in this family? The elements included are Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I), and Astatine (At).
Shared Traits They all have seven electrons in their outer shell. They need one electron to have a full shell.
Common Traits Halogens range from solid (I 2 ) to liquid (Br 2 ) to gaseous (F 2 and Cl 2 ) at room temperature. The halogens have very high electronegativities. These nonmetals form ions with a -1 charge.
Reactivity Fluorine is actually the most reactive element of all. It is a halogen. As you move down the group, reactivity decreases for the halogens.
HALIDES When a halogen combines with another element, the resulting compound is called a halide.
Their Usefulness You find these elements in bleaches, disinfectants, and salts.
Summary of Common Properties Very high electronegativities Seven valence electrons (one short of a stable octet) Highly reactive, especially with alkali metals and alkaline earths
Groups 13-15: Not all one Type Groups 13-15 include some metals, some metalloids, and some nonmetals. The transition from metal to nonmetal is gradual across the periodic table.
Common Trends in Mixed Groups Remember that even in mixed groups of elements, the trends in the periodic table still hold true. Atom size, ease of removing electrons, and ability to form bonds can be predicted as you move across and down the table.