Question? Why or how might feminist sociologists criticise the theories of Functionalist and Marxist sociologists?
‘Malestream’ sociology Heidensohn (1985) accuses the CCCS of being ‘malestream’. Which means that their accounts were written by male sociologists about young males. Traditionally all academics were men and naturally men are more interested in researching and writing about male behaviour Some feminists might argue that by making the female element invisible male sociologists have been reinforcing patriarchal dominance!
Gender Patterns of socially constructed behaviour Talcott Parsons (a functionalist in the 1950s) supported the biological determinist argument: Male instrumental role of breadwinner Female expressive role of carer
Masculinity What does it mean to be masculine? Traditional masculinity includes: Male supremacy Heterosexuality working class ideology Aggression Laddish culture Nayak (2006) argues that men used to be the breadwinners and do physical jobs which enabled them to opt out of domestic duties… how has this changed?
Femininity? What does it mean to be feminine? Is femininity changing? Is Audrey Hepurn the essence of a feminine role model?
Women had to campaign long and hard before they were given voting rights. In the early twentieth-century, this campaign was led by the suffragettes. The suffragettes The suffragettes were groups of women across the country who fought for more than 30 years to receive equal democratic rights with men.
Radical Feminism Men are the ruling class - Patriarchy Female oppression exists Male strength, rape and sexual violence underpin male control Some become ‘seperatists’ that women need to be completely independent of men Lesbian only relationships, Celibacy for some
Marxist Feminism Capitalism requires an unpaid carer in the home and an reserve army of low paid labour to draw on and control pay
Liberal Feminism Rebecca Walker future president of the USA? Campaign for equal rights and an end to gender inequality Gradual change rather than revolution Inequality is the result of sexism, discrimination, sex-role stereotypes and socialisation
What do you know? Can you identify any female subcultures? Have you been aware of different female groups with in school? Were they attached to equivalent male groups? Have you been aware of any groups of males that do not have female members? (or visa versa)
New wave girls Blackman (1995) 10 girlsSchool study Doc Martin boots Popularpunk & new black trousers wave musicT-shirts & over academically ablesized jumpers working or lowernon-conformist, middle classresist masculine & parental control
McRobbie & Garber (1976) Bedroom culture What are your views on girls’ magazines? What sort of content do they have? Smart (1976) Parents exercise different levels of control over boys and girls. What difference does this make?
Girl only subcultures? The Riot Grrrls in the USA Display feeling of anger and oppression SK8er girls associated with Avril Lavigne in the US and Canada…
Criticisms How can we criticise feminist theories of youth subculture? Only focused on gender issues Rise of androgynous culture
List Criticism of Feminist view of Youth Sub-cultures on page 258 of OCR textbook – Remember to mark them in margin on red to remind you that these are important criticisms.
Quick check What name did McRobbie and Garber give to the girl youth culture which centred around romance, fashion and a certain private domestic space What girl sub-culture grew up in the USA associated with Avril Lavigne Why was there so little research done on girl sub-cultures before the 1990s
Sharpe (1976/1994) Used structured interviews so that views could be compared over time. In 1976 revealed girls’ priorities as being love, marriage, children, husband and jobs in that order ! In 1994 this had changed to more career orientated aspirations. What are the potential problems with structured interviews? She used only a small sample !!
PEEA Mindmap! Discuss the view that females have little involvement in youth cultures (30) Use three colours to identify the AO1 Knowledge and understanding AO2 Evaluation and analysis