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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTS"— Presentation transcript:


2 INTRODUCTION The robots of the movies, such as C-3PO and the Terminator are portrayed as fantastic, intelligent, even dangerous forms of artificial life. Today, we find most robots working for people in factories, warehouses, and laboratories. In the future, robots may show up in other places: our schools, our homes, even our bodies. Robots have the potential to change our economy, our health, our standard of living, our knowledge and the world in which we live. Source:

3 ROBOT BASICS Most robots are designed to be a helping hand. They help people with tasks that would be difficult, unsafe, or boring for a real person to do alone. At its simplest, a robot is machine that can be programmed to perform a variety of jobs, which usually involve moving or handling objects. Robots can range from simple machines to highly complex, computer-controlled devices. Source:

4 TODAY’S APPLICATIONS 90% of all robots used today are found in factories. These kind of robots are referred to as industrial robots. Although many kinds of robots can be found in manufacturing today, jointed arm robots are particularly useful and common. Ten years ago, 9 out of 10 robots were being bought by auto companies - now, only 50% of robots made today are bought by car manufacturers. Robots are slowly finding their way into warehouses, laboratories, research and exploration sites, energy plants, hospitals, even outer space. Source:

5 WHY ROBOTS? Robots are useful in industry for a variety of reasons. In today's economy, a business needs to be efficient to keep up with the competition. Installing robots is often a way business owners can be more competitive, because robots can do some things more efficiently than people. Robots never get sick or need to rest, so they can work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. When the task required would be dangerous for a person, they can be do the work instead. Robots don't get bored, so work that is repetitive and unrewarding is no problem for a robot. Source:

6 EVERYDAY ROBOT TASKS Although robots can't do every type of job, there are certain tasks robots do very well: Assembling products Handling dangerous materials Spraying finishes Inspecting parts, produce, and livestock Cutting and polishing Source:

7 5 MAIN PARTS For a machine to qualify as a robot, it usually needs these 5 parts: Controller Arm Drive End Effector Sensor Source:

8 CONTROLLER Every robot is connected to a computer, which keeps the pieces of the arm working together. This computer is known as the controller. The controller functions as the "brain" of the robot. The controller also allows the robot to be networked to other systems, so that it may work together with other machines, processes, or robots. Source:

9 ARM Robot arms come in all shapes and sizes. The arm is the part of the robot that positions the end-effector and sensors to do their pre-programmed business. Many (but not all) resemble human arms, and have shoulders, elbows, wrists, even fingers. This gives the robot a lot of ways to position itself in its environment. Each joint is said to give the robot 1 degree of freedom. Source:

10 DRIVE The drive is the "engine" that drives the links (the sections between the joints into their desired position. Without a drive, a robot would just sit there, which is not often helpful. Most drives are powered by air, water pressure, or electricity. Source:

11 END - EFFECTOR The end-effector is the "hand" connected to the robot's arm. It is often different from a human hand - it could be a tool such as a gripper, a vacuum pump, tweezers, scalpel, blowtorch - just about anything that helps it do its job. Some robots can change end-effectors, and be reprogrammed for a different set of tasks. If the robot has more than one arm, there can be more than one end-effector on the same robot, each suited for a specific task. Source:

12 SENSOR The sensor sends information, in the form of electronic signals back to the controller. Sensors also give the robot controller information about its surroundings and lets it know the exact position of the arm, or the state of the world around it. Source:

13 DEGREES OF FREEDOM In order to reach any possible point in space within its work envelope, a robot needs a total of 6 degrees of freedom. Each direction a joint can go gives an arm 1 degree. As a result, many robots of today are designed to move in at least 6 ways. Some robots have 8, 12, or even 20 degrees of freedom, but these 6 are enough for most basic tasks. As a result, most jointed-arm robots in use today have 6 degrees of freedom. Source:


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