2 Past exam QThe Government wants to reduce the number of accidents caused by drivers exceeding the 30 mph speed limit in built-up areas. An advertising company is asked to create a television advertisement to persuade drivers to reduce their speed.Suggest some possible features of the television advertisement. Justify your suggestions with reference to the Hovland-Yale model. (10 marks)
3 MarkschemeThis question requires students to suggest features of a TV advert to reduce speed and apply their knowledge of the Hovland Yale model of persuasion to justify their suggestions. The Hovland Yale model focusses on the importance of the source, message, channel and audience in persuasive communications. In this scenario, the audience (car drivers) and channel (TV advert) are specified in the question along with the main function of the campaign (speed reduction). Students could refer to:The source of the communication: there is considerable evidence that experts/celebrities are generally thought to be most persuasive in TV adverts - personal stories which arouse empathy could be used in relation to speedingThe message: students could discuss the role of fear in persuasion (Meyerowitz and Chaiken suggest moderate fear is most persuasive) they could also discuss the issue of constructing one versus two sided messages. Most TV campaigns of this nature focus on clear one sided messages given their target of a wide ranging audienceStudents could discuss the interaction between audience characteristics (eg intelligence, self esteem) and messages (one versus two sided arguments).
4 Elaboration-Likelihood Model Thought Hovland’s model was two simple – doesn’t explain why certain factors affect persuasion/attitudeBelieved that there are two ways in which people process persuasive messagesCentral RoutePeripheral RouteNeed for cognition (NC) is another important factor of the model
5 Central Route Involves cognitive effort and active engagement. Persuaded by the message itself.Used when:Motivation of recipient is highAbility of recipient is highThey are knowledgeable and interested in the issueMore likely to be effective when the message is seen as personally relevant (e.g. cancer) or important (e.g. urgent charity appeal)Attitudes acquired through central processing are more resistant to change. This is because we spend a lot of time considering the message and the arguments for and against. The attitude is likely to be strengthened by such cognitive activity.
6 Peripheral Route Involves minimal cognitive effort This involves being persuaded by factors other than the message, such as by an attractive or celebritycommunicator (e.g. Joanna Page advertising for Superdrug).Used When:Limited timeLimited motivationLimited abilityIf the message is considered to be less important or less relevant, they are likely to be processed through the peripheral route.Attitudes acquired through the peripheral route are more susceptible to change/ short-lived than those acquired by the central route.
7 Need for Cognition (NC) The extent to which individuals enjoy thinking about the messages they receive and analysing problems.Those with a high cognition have a tendency to search for, scrutinise and reflect on information in order to better understand the world around them.Those with a low need for cognition rely on the opinions of credible others when making decisionsHigh NC – Central RouteLow NC – Peripheral Route
8 Past Exam QOutline the Elaboration Likelihood model of persuasion. Explain how a mobile phone company might use knowledge of this model in a campaign to market a new phone. (10 marks)What could we include in this answer????
9 MarkschemeAdverts which encourage the central route should provide detailed information / arguments about the specific features of the phone. These may be designed to appeal to business usersAdverts designed to stimulate peripheral processing will use messages with a preference for images, imaginative contexts and emotional rather than fact-based arguments eg showing people using the accessory with friends
10 Research EvidenceYou each have a study to summarise and explain to the othersWhat are the practical applications of the studies???
11 Why do people sometimes take the peripheral route? Fiske and Taylor(1984) claim that most human beings are essentially cognitive misers in that they frequently rely on simple and time- efficient strategies when evaluating information and making decisions.If the content of a message is not personally important, then individuals are more likely to be influenced by contextual cues (such as celebrity endorsement of a product or the mood created).However, when the content is more important, they are better motivated to process the message more carefully (i.e. take a central route).Thus, we may be influenced by Gary Lineker endorsing crisps, but not if he was endorsing mortgages or bank loans.
12 EvaluationDifferentiate between the strengths and weaknesses of the model
13 EvaluationFocuses of internal processes of attitude change (important in knowing how attitudes are formed and changed on a cognitive level)Notion of two routes is more realistic than one (Hovland)Emphasises importance of contextual information e.g. communicator, relevance, motivationAccounts for individual differences e.g. NCOversimplification! 2 forms of processing= oversimplified. Should be a continuum, not two separate processes. Unlikely that people only ever use one form.Not clear how central/peripheral processing interact.Difficult to predict behaviour from the model. Difficult to tell which type of processing people will use
14 Homework – due in Mon 17/11/14A company is about to launch a new perfume aimed at young career women and wants to devise a television advertising campaign to promote the perfume.Using your knowledge of the persuasive effects of television, what advice would you give to the company so that it could make the television advertising campaign as effective as possible? Refer to psychological research to justify your advice. (12 marks)Include both models in your answer