Working memory o Temporary storage of information for conscious use o Reduced - Takes longer to perceive & process sensations o Inhibits multitasking o If older people can take their time and concentrate, working memory seems as good as ever Long-term memory o Emotional memories – endure o Recognition At every age, recognition memory is better than recall Multiple choice vs. essay
Memory, retrieval strategies, selective attention & problem solving o Become less effective o Priming of memories helps Presenting memory triggers (word, smell, song, etc.)
Normal decline in spatial orientation, reasoning, numerical ability & word fluency Influenced by Health o Better predictor of cognition than age Influenced by training o Training can improve any cognitive decline Spatial orientation test
How does the brain slow down? What areas in the brain shrink the quickest? o What can help reduce this shrinkage? What is the difference between working memory and long- term memory? What is a better predictor of mental decline than age?
Dementia o Organic brain damage or disease Abnormal and pathological even in old age Delirium o Loss of memory, often with hallucinations & irrational behavior Alzheimer disease o Causes deterioration of memory and personality o Most common cause of dementia Caused by a proliferation of plaques and tangles of proteins in the brain o Many genes may be involved
Vascular dementia o Caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain o Repeated infarcts (Obstructions of blood vessels in the brain) Frontal lobe dementia o Personality changes o Deterioration of frontal lobes & amygdala People become disinhibited, impulsive, emotionally indifferent Parkinson disease o Does not always lead to dementia Lewy body dementia o Caused by deposits of protein (Lewy bodies) in the neurons o Motor movements and cognition effected o Falling, fainting, loss of inhibition, inappropriate sexual urges
Caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain
Beginning o Forgetful, personality changes o Memory loss – eventually becomes dangerous Final stage o Full-time care needed o Identity and personality are lost
What is considered dementia? What is the most common cause of Alzheimer disease? What is the most common cause of vascular dementia? What are the effects of fontal lobe dementia?
Regular exercise o Reduces dementia by half Avoid pathogens causing dementia o Mad cow disease o AIDS o Syphilis
Depression = Most common reversible cause of dementia related symptoms Lack of nutrients o As bodies age they become less efficient at digesting food and using its nutrients o Better diet can help Polypharmacy o Drug side effects can cause dementia symptoms
Erikson o Integrity vs. despair Older people gain interest in the arts, children Maslow o Self-actualization Creative, philosophical & spiritual understanding
Examination of your life Sharing your life with stories
What pathogens can cause dementia? What can be done to help reverse impairment? What are the highest levels in Erikson’s and Maslow’s theories that an older person can achieve? What is the concept of a life review?