Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3: Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions UnderstandingandManagingOrganizationalBehavior4th EditionChapter 3: Values, Attitudes, Moods, and EmotionsJENNIFER GEORGE& GARETH JONES
2 Chapter ObjectivesDescribe the nature of work values and ethical values and why they are of critical importance in organizationsUnderstand why it is important to understand employees’ moods and emotions on the jobAppreciate when and why emotional labor occurs in organizations
3 Chapter ObjectivesDescribe the nature, causes, theories, and consequences of job satisfactionAppreciate the distinction between affective commitment and continuance commitment and their implications for understanding organizational behavior
4 Opening Case: Richard Branson is Never Bored Is it possible to have fun while performing a very high stakes job?Richard Branson, Founder and CEO of Virgin Group, Ltd.“I don’t think of work as work and play as play. It’s all living…. I’m living and learning every day.”
5 The Nature of ValuesOne’s personal convictions about what one should strive for in life and how one should behaveWork values: employee’s personal convictions about what outcomes one should expect from work and how one should behave at workEthical values: one’s personal convictions about what is right and wrong
6 Outcome Expectations and Work Comfortable existenceFamily securitySense of accomplishmentSelf-respectSocial recognitionExciting Life
7 Table 3.1 A Comparison of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Values Intrinsic ValuesInteresting workChallenging workLearning new thingsMaking important contributionsResponsibility and autonomyBeing creativeExtrinsic ValuesHigh payJob securityJob benefitsStatus in wider communitySocial contactsTime with familyTime for hobbies
8 Ethical ValuesOne’s personal convictions about what is right and wrongUtilitarian values: decisions should produce the greatest good for the greatest number of peopleMoral rights values: decisions should protect the fundamental rights ad privileges of those affectedJustice values: decisions should allocate benefits and harms among those affected by the decision in a fair and equitable manner.
9 Code of EthicsSet of formal rules and standards, based on ethical values and beliefs about what is right and wrong, that employees can use to make appropriate decisions when the interests of other individuals or groups are at stakeWhistleblowers inform people in positions of authority of instances of wrongdoing, illegal behavior, or unethical behavior in an organization
10 Work AttitudesCollections of feelings, beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave that people currently hold about their jobs and organizations.Specific work attitudes:Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their current jobs.Organizational commitment is the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their organizations as a whole.
11 6Work MoodsHow people feel at the time they actually perform their jobs.More transitory than values and attitudes.Determining factors:PersonalityWork situationCircumstances outside of work
12 Work Moods Positive Excited Enthusiastic Active Strong Peppy Elated NegativeDistressedFearfulScornfulHostileJitteryNervous
13 EmotionsIntense, short-lived feelings that are linked to specific cause or antecedentEmotions can feed into moodsEmotional labor: the work employees perform to control their experience and expression of moods and emotions on the job
14 Determinants of Job Satisfaction_1 Personality: the enduring ways a person has of feeling, thinking, and behavingExtroverts tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction than introvertsValues: reflect employees’ convictions about the outcomes that work should lead to and how one should behave at workThose with strong intrinsic work values is more likely than one with weak intrinsic work values to be satisfied with a job that is meaningful but requires long hours and offer poor pay
15 Determinants of Job Satisfaction_2 Work Situationtasks a person performspeople a jobholder interacts withsurroundings in which a person worksthe way the organization treats the jobholder
16 Determinants of Job Satisfaction_3 Social Influence: influence that individuals or groups have on a person’s attitudes and behaviorCoworkersFamilyOther reference groups (unions, religious groups, friends)Culture
17 Theories of Job Satisfaction The Facet ModelHerzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene TheoryThe Discrepancy ModelThe Steady-State Theory
18 The Facet ModelFocuses primarily on work situation factors by breaking a job into its component elements, or job facets, and looking at how satisfied workers are with each.A worker’s overall job satisfaction is determined by summing his or her satisfaction with each facet of the job.
20 Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory of Job Satisfaction Focuses on the effects of certain types of job facetsEveryone has two sets of needs or requirementsMotivator needs are associated with the actual work itself and how challenging it isFacets: interesting work, autonomy, responsibilityHygiene needs are associated with the physical and psychological context in which the work is performedFacets: physical working conditions, pay, security
21 Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Hypothesized relationships between motivator needs, hygiene needs, and job satisfaction:When motivator needs are met, workers will be satisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will not be satisfied.When hygiene needs are met, workers will not be dissatisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will be dissatisfied.
22 The Discrepancy Model of Job Satisfaction To determine how satisfied they are with their jobs, workers compare their job to some “ideal job.” This “ideal job” could beWhat one thinks the job should be likeWhat one expected the job to be likeWhat one wants from a jobWhat one’s former job was likeCan be used in combination with the Facet Model.
23 Determining Satisfaction with the Discrepancy and Facet Models A) How much (enter job facet) do you currently have at your job?B) How much (enter job facet) do you think your job should have?The difference between A and B indicates the level of satisfaction with that facetThe differences are summed for an overall satisfaction score
24 The Steady-State Theory of Job Satisfaction Each worker has a typical or characteristic level of job satisfaction, called the steady state or equilibrium level.Different situational factors or events at work may move a worker temporarily from this steady state, but the worker will eventually return to his or her equilibrium level.
25 Consequences of Job (Dis)Satisfaction Performance: Satisfied workers are slightly more likely to perform at a higher level than dissatisfied workersAbsenteeism: Satisfied workers are only slightly less likely to be absent than dissatisfied workersTurnover: Satisfied workers are less likely to leave the organization than dissatisfied workers
26 Table 3.3 Determinants of Absence from Work Motivation to attend work is affected byJob satisfactionOrganization’s absence policyOther factorsAbility to attend work is affected byIllness and accidentsTransportation problemsFamily responsibilities
27 Consequences of Job Satisfaction Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): Satisfied workers are more likely to engage in this behavior than dissatisfied workers.Helping coworkers, spreading goodwillEmployee well-being: Satisfied workers are more likely to have strong well-being than dissatisfied workers.How happy, healthy, and prosperous workers are
28 Organizational Commitment Feelings and beliefs about the employing organization as a wholeAffective commitmentContinuance commitmentAffective commitment is more positive for organizations than continuance commitment