2 Agenda Breast Cancer Lecture Review 11/25/13 In-Class Assignment Guest Speaker ScheduledReview 11/25/13 In-Class AssignmentProstate & Testicular Cancers LectureDistribute Final Exam Study GuideIn-Class Assignment
3 Final Exam Mon, December 9, 2013 7:00pm – 10pm 100 Questions, each worth 2 pointsMultiple Choice, T/F, Fill-in-the-blankStudy Guide will be distributed in class on Mon, 12/2/13
4 The following presentation on Cancer is from the American Cancer Society. It has been authorizedfor use in this class by Chrissy Kim,Manager, Healthcare/Corporate Initiatives
5 What is Cancer?Cancer occurs when cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. Normal cells divide and grow in an orderly fashion, but cancer cells do not. They continue to grow and crowd out normal cells.Although there are many kinds of cancer, they all have in common this out-of-control growth of cells.
6 Cancer (cont)Sometimes cancer cells break away from a tumor and spread to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system. They can settle in new places and form new tumors. When this happens, it is called metastasis. Cancer that has spread in this way is called metastatic cancer.Even when cancer has spread to a new place in the body, it is still named after the part of the body where it started. For example, if prostate cancer spreads to the bones, it is still called prostate cancer. If breast cancer spreads to the lungs, it is still breast cancer. When cancer comes back in a person who appeared to be free of the disease after treatment, it is called a recurrence.
7 Survival Rates 5-year localized survival rate Localized cancer is cancer that, at the time of diagnosis, had not spread to additional sites within the body. Typically, the earlier a cancer is detected and diagnosed, the more successful the treatment, thus enhancing the survival rate.
8 Survival Rates 5-year overall survival rate The 5-year survival rates represent persons who are living 5 years after diagnosis, whether disease-free, in remission, or under treatment. They do not imply that 5-year survivors have been permanently cured of cancer.
9 Conditions of the Scrotum Epididymitisan inflammation or infection of the epididymisCaused by bacterial infectionsSometimes caused by gonorrhea and chlamydiaIncidence is less than 1 in 1,000 males per yearEpididymitis is primarily a disease of adults, most commonly affecting males aged years.
11 What Is Testicular Cancer? Testicular cancer can develop in one or both testicles in men and boys.Contained in a sac of skin called the scrotum, the testicles are the part of the male reproductive system that produces sperm and male hormones (like testosterone).Very rare cancer but is the most common cancer found in men ages
12 The American Cancer Society’s Estimates In the United States during 2013:7,920 new cases of testicular cancerDeaths per year: 370 menTesticular cancer is not common; about 1 in 270 men will develop testicular cancer in their lifetime.
13 Risk Factors The main risk factors for testicular cancer include: RaceFamily historyBeing born with an undescended testicleCryptorchidismBecause these risks cannot be avoided, it is not currently known how to prevent most cases of testicular cancer.
14 Risk Factors (cont)Although testicular cancers usually occur in patients between the ages of 15 and 40, they can affect males of any age, including infants and elderly men.The risk among White men is about five times higher than among African American men.Men who have had cancer in one testicle are at increased risk for developing cancer in the other testicle.
15 What Are Other Risk Factors? If a man’s close family members have had testicular cancer, he is at greater risk.Men who had an undescended testicle as a baby are at increased risk (3 out of every 100 male infants).Men who have had cancer in one testicle are at increased risk for developing cancer in the other testicle.
16 Other Risk FactorsSome jobs may put men at increased risk for testicular cancer. Examples include being one of the following:MinerOil or gas workerJanitorLeather workerRecent studies found no evidence that having a vasectomy increases a man’s risk of developing the disease.
17 Reducing Your RiskThe main risk factors for testicular cancer include:RaceFamily historyBeing born with an undescended testicleBecause these risks cannot be avoided, it is not currently known how to prevent most cases of testicular cancer.
18 Risk Factors (cont)Since none of these risks can be prevented, the best protection is awareness of risks and symptoms, early detection, and prompt treatment.Men at risk may want to perform a monthly self-examTesticular Self Exam (TSE)
19 Testicular Self Exam (TSE) The best time to perform the self-exam is during or after abath or shower, when the skin of the scrotum is relaxed. Toperform a testicular self exam:Hold the penis out of the way and examine each testicle separately.Hold the testicle between the thumbs and fingers with both hands and roll it gently between the fingers.Look and feel for any hard lumps or nodules (smooth rounded masses) or any change in the size, shape, or consistency of the testes.American Cancer Society. 2006
20 Symptoms Lump or swelling in either testicle Enlargement of a testicle 90% of casesOften painless or slightly uncomfortableEnlargement of a testicleFeeling of heaviness in the scrotumDull ache in the lower abdomen or groinSudden collection of fluid in the scrotumEnlargement or tenderness of the breasts
21 Detection MethodsIn 90% of cases, men have a lump or swelling in a testicle.Any swelling or aching in the testicles should be examined by a doctor without delay.Men at risk may want to perform a monthly self-exam.
22 DiagnosisMedical History and Physical ExamUltrasoundBlood Tests
23 TreatmentTesticular cancer is highly treatable, usually curable, and relatively rare.Treatment is most successful when cancer is detected early.Often two or more treatment methods are used.Patients should thoroughly discuss treatment options with their doctors.
24 Treatment Options There are three main treatment options: Surgery An operation to remove cancer cells.Radiation therapyUses high-energy rays to shrink or kill cancer cells.ChemotherapyUses anticancer drugs that attack cancer cells and normal cells. The drugs are usually given by injection or by mouth.
25 Survival Rates 5-year localized survival rate is 99% 5-year overall survival rate is 95%Survival rates drop to 76% when cancer has spread to distant organs, which underlines the need for early action.
27 What Is Prostate Cancer? In American men, prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death.The prostate gland is walnut-sized and is located in front of the rectum, behind the penis, and under the bladder.Most prostate cancers grow very slowly, but when they spread, they can do so quickly.
28 The American Cancer Society’s Estimates In the United States during 2013:238,590 new cases of prostate cancerDeaths per year: 29,720
29 The Prostate GlandUrinary BladderProstate Gland
30 Three Greatest Risk Factors Being a manOnly men develop prostate cancer, typically those ages 50 and older.AgeMore than 70% of prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over 65.Race: African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world. The rates of prostate cancer death for African American men are more than twice the rates for White men.
31 Other Risk FactorsAbout 5 to 10% of prostate cancers may be inherited.Eating a high-fat dietespecially a diet high in saturated fat, found primarily in animal sources, such as red meat and dairy products—may play a part in causing prostate cancer.
32 SymptomsMost early cases of prostate cancer cause no symptoms, but some early signs may be:Frequent urination, especially at night.Difficulty starting urination or inability to urinate.Weak or painful urination.
33 Diagnosis Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) blood testDigital Rectal Exam (DRE)rectal examAll men 50 years of age and older should ask their physicians about having the PSA test and a DRE every year.At a younger age if at high risk
34 TreatmentTreatment is most successful when prostate cancer is detected early.Often two or more treatment methods are used.Patients should thoroughly discuss treatment options with their doctors.
35 TreatmentIf prostate cancer is detected early, is slow growing, and is not causing symptoms, “watchful waiting” may be chosen initially, especially for older men.Active treatment is started if the cancer begins to grow more quickly or symptoms appear.
36 Treatment (active) Options SurgeryRemoval of the prostate, called prostatectomy, isthe most commonly chosen surgical treatment.Radiation therapyUses high-energy rays to shrink or kill cancer cells.
37 Treatment Options (cont) ChemotherapyUses anticancer drugs that attack cancer cells and normal cells. The drugs are usually given by injection or by mouth.Hormone therapyTreatment with hormones or drugs that interfere with hormone production or action, or the surgical removal of hormone producing glands.
38 Survival Rates 5-year localized survival rate is 100% 5-year overall survival rate is 99%
39 PreventionAll men 50 and older should talk to their doctors about having annual DRE and PSA tests to help find prostate cancer early.Men who are at high risk for prostate cancer (African Americans or men with a first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer at a young age) should begin testing at age 45.Prostate cancer is less likely to be curable once it has spread; however, with annual screening, prostate cancer can be detected before this occurs.