Presentation on theme: "D Boland. The roles of women within industry have changed in both developed & developing countries. Recently, several changes have happened in Ireland."— Presentation transcript:
The roles of women within industry have changed in both developed & developing countries. Recently, several changes have happened in Ireland but women still do not enjoy industrial equality with men
What changes have occurred in the work place in the past 50 years.
Changes have taken place 1: Big increase in number of women in paid employment. BUT More than 30% are part-time & in low paid jobs. Most work in traditional employment – office work, catering & other service industries. Females make up 92% of nurses but only 8% of engineers.
Changes have taken place 2: More women employed in skilled & semi- skilled industry. BUT A much smaller amount of women than men progress to higher-paid managerial positions. Only 18% of Irish industrial managers are female.
Changes have taken place 3: Women’s industrial wages have steadily increased, equal pay for equal work is now the norm. BUT Women’s average industrial wages are still only 75% of those of men. Some immigrant women have illegally been exploited, paid 30% less than Irish co- workers.
Prejudice: regarding what’s seen as ‘suitable’ working roles for women. An EU survey shows that 50% of Irish people believe that woman are capable as men of working as TD’s, surgeons etc.. Education: More girls study home economics in school, more boys study industrial subjects such as woodwork. Domestic duties & childcare facilities: Women are expected to do most child-minding. This can discourage them from entering full-time employment.
1917 revolution made Russia world’s first Communist country. In 1991, Russia became a ‘free-market’ or capitalist economic system. Both of these led to changes in women’s role within Russian industry.
Changes have taken place 1: Before Communism Before 1917 Russian women had few rights. They were expected to marry & obey their husbands. Most received little formal education and only 16% could read or write, compared to 40% of men. Those woman that did work received far less money that their male counterparts.
Changes have taken place 2: During Communism Following the Communist Revolution women were given equal rights & educational opportunities to men. Every adult had the right to employment & equal pay. By 1990 over 90% of woman were engaged in full/part time work and fully literate BUT While these rights were given, women were still traditionally viewed as housekeepers and carried the double burden of housework & employment.
Changes have taken place 3: Following Communism In 1991, the Communist system collapsed. Russians were allowed to set up their own companies & greater personal freedom was given with less restrictive government rules. BUT Thousands of unprofitable factories have shut down. State-run childminding centres have closed down making it harder for mothers to work outside home. 2001= ¾ of Russia’s unemployed were women.