4 CognitivismIn psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s. The movement was a response to behaviorism, which cognitivists said neglected to explain cognition.Grew in response to Behaviorism in an effort to better understand the mental processes behind learning
5 Cognitivism"the psychology of learning which emphasizes human cognition or intelligence as a special endowment enabling man to form hypotheses and develop intellectually“It is also known as cognitive development. Grew in response to Behaviorism in an effort to better understand the mental processes behind learning
6 CognitivismThe underlying concepts of cognitivism involve how we think and gain knowledge. Cognitivism involves examining learning, memory, problem solving skills, and intelligence. Grew in response to Behaviorism in an effort to better understand the mental processes behind learning
7 Cognitivism Grew in response to Behaviorism Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbolsLearning is the process of connecting symbols in a meaningful & memorable wayStudies focused on the mental processes that facilitate symbol connectionGrew in response to Behaviorism in an effort to better understand the mental processes behind learning
8 CognitivismCognitive growth involves an interaction between basic human capabilities and "culturally invented technologies that serve as amplifiers of these capabilities.“These culturally invented technologies include not just obvious things such as computers and television, but also more abstract notions such as the way a culture categorizes phenomena, and language itself.Grew in response to Behaviorism in an effort to better understand the mental processes behind learning
9 Cognitive Learning Theory Discovery Learning - Jerome BrunerMeaningful Verbal Learning – David Ausubel
10 Cognitive Learning Theory Discovery Learning1. Bruner said anybody can learn anything at any age, provided it is stated in terms they can understand.
11 Cognitive Learning Theory Discovery LearningTransfer to many different situationsOnly possible through Discovery LearningConfront the learner with problems and help them find solutions.Do not present sequenced materials.2. Powerful Concepts (not isolated facts)An example of a powerful concept is addition. Instead of drilling facts1 + 1 = 21 + 2 = 3into people’s heads, teach them the CONCEPT of addition.
12 Discovery LearningDiscovery learning is an inquirybased, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned.Students interact with the world by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments.An example of a powerful concept is addition. Instead of drilling facts1 + 1 = 21 + 2 = 3into people’s heads, teach them the CONCEPT of addition.
13 Discovery LearningResult: students may be more likely to remember concepts and knowledge discovered on their own (in contrast to a transmissionist model).Models that are based upon discovery learning model include: guided discovery, problembased learning, simulationbased learning, casebased learning, incidental learning, among others.An example of a powerful concept is addition. Instead of drilling facts1 + 1 = 21 + 2 = 3into people’s heads, teach them the CONCEPT of addition.
14 Cognitive Learning Theory Meaningful Verbal LearningAdvance Organizers:New material is presented in a systematic way, and is connected to existing cognitive structures in a meaningful way.New material is related to something they already know!
15 Cognitive Learning Theory Meaningful Verbal LearningWhen learners have difficulty with new material, go back to the concrete anchors (Advance Organizers). Provide a Discovery approach, and they’ll learn..
16 Meaningful Verbal Learning The key concept for Ausubel is the cognitive structure. He sees this as the sum of all the knowledge we have acquired as well as the relationships among the facts, concepts and principles that make up that knowledge. Learning for Ausubel is bringing something new into our cognitive structure and attaching it to our existing knowledge that is located there. An example of a powerful concept is addition. Instead of drilling facts1 + 1 = 21 + 2 = 3into people’s heads, teach them the CONCEPT of addition.
17 Cognitivism in the Classroom Inquiry-oriented projectsOpportunities for the testing of hypothesesCuriosity encouragedStaged scaffoldingStaged scaffolding: not based on ability or experience…based on developmental stage (age most predominantly)
18 Cognitivism and Practice Information Processing looks at how information is stored and retrieved.Learning is attained through rehearsal and consistent use of the information.Retention strategies such as breaking down information and comparing the information to long term storage are great techniques.
19 Critiques of Cognitivism Like Behaviorism, knowledge itself is given and absoluteInput – Process – Output model is mechanistic and deterministicDoes not account enough for individualityLittle emphasis on affective characteristics, especially motivationDoes not account enough for individuality and differences in staged developmentLittle emphasis on affective characteristics, especially motivation
21 Social Learning Theory (SLT) Grew out of CognitivismAlferd Bandura (1973)Learning takes place through observation and sensorial experiencesImitation is the sincerest form of flatterySLT is the basis of the movement against violence in media & video gamesImitation: Individuals adopt the modeled behavior more readily and completely if the person they are observing is admired by the observerWe more readily model behavior if it results in outcomes we value or approve of
22 Social Learning Theory (SLT) Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.Imitation: Individuals adopt the modeled behavior more readily and completely if the person they are observing is admired by the observerWe more readily model behavior if it results in outcomes we value or approve of
23 Social Learning Theory Necessary Conditions for effective modeling:1. Attention to pertinent clues2. Code for memory (store a visual image) retention3. Accurately reproduce the observed activity4. Possess sufficient motivation to apply new learning
24 Social Learning Theory Research indicates that the following factors influence the strength of learning from models:1. How much power the model seems to have2. How capable the model seems to be3. How nurturing (caring) the model seems to be4. How similar the learner perceives self and model5. How many models the learner observes
25 Social Learning Theory Four interrelated processes establish and strengthen identification with the model:1. Children want to be like the model2. Children believe they are like the model3. Children experience emotions like those the model is feeling.4. Children act like the model.
26 Social Learning Theory Through identification, children come to believe they have the same characteristics as the model.When they identify with a nurturant and competent model, children feel pleased and proud.When they identify with an inadequate model, children feel unhappy and insecure.
27 SLT in the Classroom Collaborative learning and group work Modeling responses and expectationsOpportunities to observe experts in action
28 Critiques of Social Learning Theory Does not take into account individuality, context, and experience as mediating factorsSuggests students learn best as passive receivers of sensory stimuli, as opposed to being active learnersEmotions and motivation not considered important or connected to learningThink of a laboratory environment, for instance. What’s more effective in your estimation…watching the faculty member conduct the lab, or you doing it yourself?