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Individuals and Government

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Presentation on theme: "Individuals and Government"— Presentation transcript:

1 Individuals and Government
Chapter 1 Individuals and Government

2 Public Finance Public finance is the field of economics that studies government activities and the alternative means of financing government expenditures.

3 Figure 1.1 A Production-Possibility Frontier
Government Goods and Services per Year Private Goods and Services per Year C M G2 B X2 G1 A X1

4 Distribution of Government Goods and Services
Nonmarket rationing: Prices and willingness to pay those prices are not applicable to goods like national defense.

5 The Mixed Economy: Markets and Politics
Pure Market Economy Virtually all goods and services are supplied by for-profit private firms. Supply and demand determine price. Mixed Economy A mixed economy is one in which government supplies a considerable amount of goods and services and regulates private economic activity.

6 Figure 1.2 Circular Flow in the Mixed Economy
Goods & Services Goods & Services Output Market Dollars Dollars Taxes, fees, charges Government Services Income Support & Subsidies Subsidies Taxes, fees, charges Government Services Households Government Firms Resources Dollars Dollars Resources Input Market

7 Government Expenditures in the United States
Government purchases of labor land capital Government Transfer Payments Welfare Social Security

8 Growth in Government Expenditures
Growth in Government Expenditures Table 1.1 (abbreviated) Year GDP Federal Government State and Local Government Total Government Percentage of GDP 1930 91.3 2.5 7.5 10.0 10.95 1945 223.0 84.7 8.5 93.2 41.79 1960 527.4 85.8 34.1 119.9 22.73 1975 1635.2 345.4 152.1 497.5 30.42 2002 2073.9 1050.9 3124.8 29.93

9 International Comparisons
Country Government Current Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP 2001 Denmark 49.1 France 48.8 Germany 45.1 United Kingdom 39.4 Japan 38.1 Canada 36.7 United States 31.9

10 Federal Government Expenditures by Function

11 State and Local Government Expenditures

12 Federal Revenues

13 State and Local Government Revenues

14 State Budget Crunch of 2002 37 states were forced to reduce their budgets. Revenues were typically 10% less than anticipated. States with the most severe deficits: AK, AZ, CA, NY, NC, OK, OR, VA, and WA Causes Cuts in taxes on business and individuals in the 1990s No sales tax collections on services Growth in costs of Medicaid

15 Implications of a Graying America
Social Security In 2008 baby-boomers start to retire and collect The ratio of workers to retiree falls Medicare Health care inflation is substantially higher than overall inflation Medicaid Increased use of long-term care for baby-boomers

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