Helps with concentration & focus Four rules of underlining: › The main idea (topic sentence) in paragraphs › The support for those main ideas › The answers to your questions › Only the key words
Often not possible to read word for word What do you already know about topic? What do you need to/want to know? Learn to focus on key features › Titles and subtitles › Section introductory paragraphs › Bulleted and numbered portions › Highlighted or boxed material › Illustrations, graphics, charts › Chapter/section summaries
Related to underlining Often appears along with underlining Represents intense involvement › turns a reader into a writer
Echo the author’s ideas Critically question the author’s ideas Relate author’s ideas to something else Add to the author’s ideas
Are used for: › critical examination of text › problem-solving analytical assignments Help avoid common problem of: › Students’ writing only a summary › Not writing a thoughtful evaluation
“The Jacket,” by Jack Soto In-class reading, followed by a two-part response of a summary + reaction Read the short story and then write 40-50 words of a summary and 40-50 words of a reaction No more than half a page total Include your name and turn this in!
Explanations › Cause and effect › Contrast and compare References › Author tags Quotations › Taking words directly from a source and then properly citing (crediting) the source
Handbook of Student Rights and Responsibilities › (http://www.pcc.edu/about/policy/student- rights/student-rights.pdf) (http://www.pcc.edu/about/policy/student- rights/student-rights.pdf) See p. 9 on Academic Integrity Policy
Informal documentation Formal documentation: MLA › Modern Language Association
Identify the source whose material you use Document any borrowed original idea: › Quoted › Paraphrased written in your words but not shorter › Summarized written in your words and shorter
Direct quote or borrowed idea: give author’s last name and page number 1. It has been said that “neat people are bums and clods at heart” (Britt 255). 2. Some believe that neat people are weak in character (Britt 255).
Author’s name used in introducing an idea or direct quote: page number only 1. Suzanne Britt says that “neat people are bums and clods at heart” (255). 2. Suzanne Britt believes that neat people are weak in character (255).
Author’s name Editor’s name, if applicable Title (both chapter and book, if applicable) Edition, publisher, date Page number(s) Burns, Tyson M. “My First Real Fire.” Sentences, Paragraphs and Beyond with Integrated Readings. 5 th ed. Ed. Lee Brandon and Kelly Brandon. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008. 120-122.