Quantitative research (experimental method) Qualitative research (non-experimental method) What’s the difference? When to use which?
- empirical / numbers - questionnaires and labs - reliability - validity - replicability - generalizability - Cause and effect relationship Calculation of statistics Can all sorts of behaviour be quantified?
Gather information about the ‘qualities’ or characteristics of what is being studied Gives an insight into psychological processes Use interviews, observation, case studies, etc
Can help to answer “why? & how?” questions: - How do Vietnamese women view domestic violence? - Why do teenagers join street gangs? Interpret & analyze data
The research method depends upon the problem being studied, the investigator’s objectives and ethical principles Choose what you want to study then choose how Not the other way around
Combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods Benefit: more complete picture of the behaviour studied
Quantitative research take a deductive approach - Begins with theory then form hypothesis - test the hypothesis against empirical evidence - accept or reject hypothesis - general idea correct or incorrect?
Qualitative research take a inductive approach - Detective work - Begins with specific things (e.g: observation) then form theory. They first gather data, then see what these could mean. - - Use research question instead of a hypothesis (open-ended instead of a claim) - Usually focus on one concept or idea. - Usually pertain to the actions or perceptions of participants
Allows for a deeper understanding and reveal personal experience Structured interview Unstructured interview Semi-structured interview
Controlled method Tight interview schedule List of exact questions a “spoken” questionnaire Easy to analyze and compare data
Loose interview schedule Topic and time stated Questions made up as it goes Easier for participant to “open up” and reveal interesting data Difficult to analyze the data
Mostly used A set of close and open questions the answer can be more open than in a structured interview
Positive relationship Be very aware of interviewer effects (non verbal behaviour and signs which affects the interviewee) An interview is a private thing so there’s A risk for participant bias A risk for social desirability bias Sensitive information might be revealed so remember the ethics Be a researcher on p. 32: teenagers and drug use and abuse
Describe behaviour without referring to a cause and effect relationship Naturalistic observation - To observe behaviour as it occurs in a natural setting - Jane Goodall and African chimpanzees - Often used to study children to learn about cooperation, aggression and problem solvingJane Goodall and African chimpanzees
Researcher sees what s/he wants to see Solve with many observers, if all sees the same thing = inter-observer reliability
Participant observation - Researcher takes part in the group - Overt or covert - gains a close and intimate familiarity with a given group (e.g The Ku Klux Klan) - difficult balance between observation and participation Non-participant observation - not being part of the group - Can do it overt or covert - researcher bias might occur Covert observation - to avoid reactivity
Ordinary code of ethics apply with informed consent, etc Special permission to carry out covert observation Public places mostly considered ok Read Rosenhan’s study (1973) on page 34-35
Not a research method but an approach In-depth analysis of an individual, group or event Gives a deep insight into unique phenomena or behaviour Data collected through interviews, observation, psychological tests, etc. One case in detail from many angles instead of 2000 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEnkY2iaKis &feature=related Genie http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEnkY2iaKis &feature=related Example: Read Money’s study (1974) on p. 37