2 OutlineDicots versus MonocotsStructure of FlowersFruitsFleshyDryFruit and Seed DispersalSeedsGerminationLongevity
3 Dicots versus Monocots Two cotyledonsFlower parts in fours or fivesLeaves with distinct vein networkVascular cambium presentVascular bundles in ringPollen grain with three aperturesMonocotsOne cotyledonFlower parts in threesLeaves with parallel primary veins.Vascular cambium absentVascular bundles scatteredPollen grain with one aperture
4 Structure of FlowersEach flower, which begins as an embryonic primordium that develops into a bud, occurs as a specialized branch at the tip of a peduncle which may have branchlets of pedicles.A peduncle or pedicle swells at its tip into a small pad (receptacle).Other parts of the flower are attached to the receptacle.
5 Structure of FlowersOutermost whorl typically consists of three to five sepals (usually green).Sepals (calyx) may be fused together. The calyx protects the flower while it is in the bud.Next whorl consists of three to many petals (corolla). Colorful Corolla attract pollinators.Calyx and corolla form the perianth.
6 Structure of FlowersSeveral to many stamens are attached to the receptacle around the base of the pistil.Each stamen (male organ of the flower) consists of a filament with an anther at the top.Pollen grains are developed and disseminated in anthers.
7 Structure of FlowersPistil (female organ of flower) consists of Stigma, Style, and Ovary. Ovaries carry ovules (eggs also known as carpels) and some ovaries fuse to form a compound ovary. After fertilization with male nuclei from the pollen grain, an ovule develops to a seed and the ovary develops and becomes the fruit bearing the seed.Superior Ovary - Calyx and corolla are attached to the receptacle at the base of the ovary.Inferior Ovary - Receptacle grows up and around the ovary.Calyx and corolla appear to be attached at the top.Inflorescences - Group of several to hundreds of flowers.
9 FruitsFruit is an ovary and its accessory parts that have developed and matured.Usually contains seeds.All fruits develop from flower ovaries and accordingly are found exclusively in flowering plants.
10 FruitsFruit RegionsExocarp - SkinEndocarp - Inner boundary around seed(s).Mesocarp - Fleshy tissue between exocarp and endocarp.Three regions are collectively called the pericarp.
15 FruitsDry Fruits That Split at Maturity (Dehiscent)Follicle - Splits along one side or seam (e.g. milkkweed).Legume - Splits along two sides or seams.Silique - Splits along two sides or seams, but seeds are borne on central partition exposed when the two halves separate.Capsules - Consist of at least two carpels, and split in a variety of ways.
19 FruitsAggregate FruitsDerived from a single flower with several to many pistils.Individual pistils mature as a clustered unit on a single receptacleRaspberries, Strawberries.Multiple FruitsDerived from several to many individual flowers in a single inflorescence.Pineapples, Figs
20 Fruit and Seed Dispersal Wind DispersalSmall and Lightweight seeds.Animal DispersalSeeds pass through digestive tract.Fruits and seeds catch in fur or feathers.Oils attract ants.Water DispersalSome fruits contain trapped air.Mechanical Ejection of Seeds
21 SeedsStructureCotyledons - Food storage organs that function as first seed leaves.Plumule - Embryo shoot.Epicotyl - Stem above cotyledon.Hypocotyl - Stem below attachment point.Radicle - Stem tip developing into a root.
23 GerminationGermination is the beginning or resumption of seed growth.Seed must be viable.Some require period of dormancy.ScarificationAfter RipeningFavorable Environmental FactorsImbibe water
24 LongevityViability of most seeds is significantly extended when the seeds are stored under conditions of low temperatures and kept dry.A few species produce seeds with no period of dormancy. This is known as vivipary
25 ReviewDicots versus MonocotsStructure of FlowersFruitsFleshyDryFruit and Seed DispersalSeedsGerminationLongevity