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Presentation on theme: "4.12 & 4.13 UNDERSTAND DATA-COLLECTION METHODS TO EVALUATE THEIR APPROPRIATENESS FOR THE RESEARCH PROBLEM/ISSUE. 4.00 Understand promotion and intermediate."— Presentation transcript:

1 4.12 & UNDERSTAND DATA-COLLECTION METHODS TO EVALUATE THEIR APPROPRIATENESS FOR THE RESEARCH PROBLEM/ISSUE. 4.00 Understand promotion and intermediate uses of marketing-information


3 Explain reasons for having a variety of data-collection methods.
Some people are more likely to respond to specific formats Some formats allow more in-depth questioning Quantitative means we can count the results Quantitative inquiries use numerical and statistical processes to answer specific questions. EX: surveys, tracking, experiments. Describe forms of quantitative data collection

4 Describe forms of qualitative data collection
Looking for opinions, judgment, feelings EX: personal interviews, focus groups, observational research). Explain limitations associated with qualitative research. Qualitative is based on feelings and interpretations While numbers can be assigned, they tend to be estimates

5 Explain advantages/disadvantages with using observational techniques to collect marketing data.
Advantages (A): Limits introduction of bias, customer isn’t being interfered with by the observer Disadvantages (D): The observer doesn’t know why the customer has made the choice, no option for clarification Describe advantages/disadvantages associated with using mail techniques to collect marketing data. A: Cheap, cover lots of customers, can be thorough D: Poor return rate, customer can’t ask for clarification

6 Discuss advantages/disadvantages associated with using telephone data-collection methods.
A: Cheap, can ask for clarification to an answer D: People often won’t participate, can’t read body language

7 Describe ways to use the Internet to collect data.
Online surveys (send the customer a link) Simulations (where the customer play s a game or works through a simulation) Explain advantages/disadvantages associated with using the Internet as a data-collection method. A: Engaging surveys (color, motion, video), online surveys eliminate interviewer bias or error D: Impersonal, can’t ready body language

8 Describe advantages/disadvantages of using discussion groups to collect data.
A: Multiple opinions can be collected at once, simultaneously test individual thoughts and group opinions D: The group can influence the opinions and answers of individuals

9 Discuss advantages/disadvantages associated with using interviews to collect data.
A: Can clarify questions, read body language D: Might influence the responder, time pressure Explain advantages/disadvantages associated with using scanners to collect data. A: Quick tabulation of responses, limited chance for transcription errors D: Answers are limited to pre-selected options, miss-marked responses

10 Explain why data-collection instruments must be carefully designed and administered.
Must be designed to find the required information Must engage the responder so s/he takes the time to read and thoughtfully answer Must be clear as to what is being asked, easy to understand Easy to answer so there aren’t any transcription errors

11 Challenges in developing effective data-collection instruments
cultural differences between researcher and source, resources required for the study, intangible nature of some types of information, difficulty accessing some sources of information.

12 Explain elements of surveys
A statement to respondents about how information will be used and why it is valuable; Clear instructions, including for any skip patterns; Appealing format; Logical sequence of questions; Consideration of how answers to previous items might affect later items).

13 Describe qualities of a good survey item
Clear questions, Single focus for each question, Neutral questions, Balanced questions, Appropriate language for the intended respondent, Appropriately broad or narrow in scope.

14 Explain how to ensure the quality of observations.
Set the parameters for what is included and excluded Clear view without interfering Training and practice Discuss considerations for collecting data online. Security, supplemental information, collating and analyzing the data Describe considerations in using a pre-existing data collection instrument. Does it address the information needed for your specific problem/issue? Does it work with your customers?

15 Explain the use of scaling in marketing research.
How items are rated, ranked or scored Distinguish between rating & ranking scales. Rating sets a scale for an individual item Ranking compares different items Distinguish between nominal data & ordinal scales. Nominal – mutually exclusive answers with no implied ranking Ordinal – involve ranking of answers, relative position (not magnitude)

16 Discuss when ordinal scales are used.
Used to measure relative attitudes, opinions, perceptions and preferences “Which is more important to you?” Implied ordered sequence (e.g. the first item is greater than the second) Describe characteristics of interval rating scales. Shows order and distance (how far apart are the two or more objects?) Do not allow comparisons of absolute magnitude Cannot say that an assigned 6 is twice an assigned 3 when using an interval scale

17 Distinguish between interval and ratio scales.
Ratio scales possess order, distance and a unique origin (can be absolute - zero point or natural starting point) Can say that an assigned 6 is twice an assigned 3 when working on a ratio scale

18 Distinguish between continuous and itemized rating scales.
Continuous: Respondent makes a mark at the appropriate position on a line, no comparison standard it given Itemized: scale has a number or brief description associated with each category. Categories are ordered and respondent is required to select the category that best describes the object being ranked

19 Discuss types of itemized rating scales
Likert numerical values associated with each possible answer Semantic Differential Scale uses bipolar adjectival phrases to describe a person’s beliefs. The respondent marks a category along the rating continuum (usually 1 to 7)

20 CONT. Stapel Scale differs from semantic by using just one term and then sets a scale for rating the appropriateness of that term (usually -5 to +5 with no zero) Multi-Dimensional used when difficult to measure attitude based on only one attribute. Used when it is impossible to capture the complete picture with one overall question.

21 Multi-Dimensional CONT.
The major attributes of a given class of products perceived by the consumers in considering the product and by which they compare the different ranks. To study which brand competes most directly with each other. To find out whether the consumers would like a new brand with a combination of characteristics not found in the market. What would be the consumers ideal combination of product attributes. What sales and advertising messages are compatible with consumers brand perceptions.

22 Explain advantages/disadvantages of the types of itemized rating scales.
A: Itemized rating scales give the responders a choice of ranking. Allows the responder room to explain who much s/he feels positively or negatively. D: Responders aren’t likely to be consistent in their ratings. A lot of room for interpretation on the part of the responder and the surveyor.

23 Explain types of ranking scales
Paired Comparison – respondents are asked to choose between two objects at a time (small number of objects) Too many will result in respondent fatigue. Forced Choice – respondents rank objects relative to one another. Don’t offer too many choices. Comparative Scale – provides a benchmark or point of reference to assess attitudes toward the object under study


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