Presentation on theme: "(Or is it physiological)"— Presentation transcript:
1 (Or is it physiological) BEHAVIOURALADAPTATIONSBehaviour in Plants(Or is it physiological)
2 Plant BehaviourWhat stimuli impact on plants and how do plants respond as a result?The effect of environmental stimuli on plants and their effect on plant growthRhythmic activities of plants in response to external stimuli
3 TROPISMSExternal factors, such as light, gravity and touch, exert an influence on plant growth and development.The growth of a plant in response to a stimulus such as light or water is called a tropismWhen a plant grows towards a stimulus, it is termed a positive tropismWhen a plant grows away from a stimulus, it is termed a negative tropism
4 TROPISMS Light as a stimulus When a plant moves in response to light, it shows phototropismMovement towards the light is a –Positive phototropism
5 TROPISMSInvestigations by Charles Darwin which had covered and uncovered growth tips of plants showed the tip had an influence that passed from the tip to the area where bending occurredAuxin – a plant hormone is produced in the tip of a coleoptile and causes growth of cells in the coleoptile.The tip is the site of reception of the light stimulus.The growing region below the tip is the effector
6 TROPISMS Auxin moves away from light Auxin influences the growth rate of plant cells. More auxin, increased growth rate.When a seedling is evenly illuminated, auxin is evenly distributed throughout the growth tip.When light is concentrated on one side of the plant, auxin moves away from the light, to the darker side of the tipIncreased concentration of auxin in one side of the plant results in accelerated growth (elongated growth) of the cells on that side.The uneven growth of cells results in bending of the plant.
8 TROPISMS Gravity as a stimulus Auxin stimulates the growth of cells in shoots but inhibits the rate of growth in the cells of roots.Lie a seed on its side and the auxin settles in the lower part of the shoot and the roots due to gravityWhich way will the roots go?Which way will the shoots go?
10 TROPISMS Gravity as a stimulus In a horizontal seedling, auxin accumulates (settles) along the lower horizontal part of the shoot (due to gravity) causing the cells in that part to grow fasterHence, the shoot turns up away from gravityIn the roots, it is the upper part that grows faster so that the root turns downwards towards gravity. Auxin slows the cell growth in the rootsGeotropism is the plant responding to gravity
11 TROPISMS Gravity as a stimulus Shoots show negative geotropism Roots show positive geotropismThe response of plants to distribution of auxins allows plants to orient themselves to a more favourable position within their environmentHow do tropisms assist the plant in photosynthesis?
12 CLIMBING PLANTSThigmotropism is the change in growth because of contact with another object.Explain what would be happening in regard to the distribution of auxin in a climbing plant when it comes in contact with another object. How does auxin contribute to thigmotropism?
13 RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIESPlants, like animals exhibit a range of rhythmic behaviours.
14 RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIES Time as a stimulus Biological clock – the internal clock or timing system for sleep patterns. The sleep pattern occurs every 24 hoursAn activity that follows a 24 hour cycle is called a Circadian Rhythm (or circadian cycle)Plant behaviours that follow a circadian rhythm – opening and closing of flowers, nectar and perfume productionThis movement is independent of the direction of the stimulus – Nastic Movement.
15 Solar Tracking or Heliotropism RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIESSolar Tracking or HeliotropismLeaves and flowers that are able to move during the day so they are oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the sun’s direct rays.Eg. SunflowersHow can heliotropism as a behaviour assist in survival?
16 RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIES Photoperiodism Timing of Flowering The relative length of day and night is the photoperiodThe response of plants to particular periods of light and dark is called photoperiodism.The length of day and night to which a plant is exposed is very important.
17 RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIES Photoperiodism Photoperiodism differs between plantsShort day plants – eg Chrysanthemums flower only when the day length is shorter than some critical period.Long day plants – eg Carnations flower only when day lengths are longer than certain critical minimum.Day neutral plants – eg Dandelion flower regardless of the length of the day.
18 RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIES Photoperiodism How would classify plants that flower in the spring?Although the terms short-day and long-day plants suggests the exposure to light is critical. The length of darkness is also very critical.
19 RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIES Photoperiodism Example – Cocklebur (short-day plant) would only flower when the dark period exceeded nine hours; the day length does not matter.When the cocklebur is exposed to even a brief flash of light during the dark period, the plant no longer flowers.Uninterrupted dark is important for floweringShort-day plants are really long-night plants.Long-day plants are really short-night plants.
20 RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIES Photoperiodism Phytochromes, light sensitive pigments in leaves react to a photoperiod that is appropriate for the particular plant.As a result, the leaves produce a hormoneThis hormone then travels to buds which then flowerPhotoperiod can also be important in breaking the dormancy of seeds and other parts of plants.