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Chapter 2 The Basic Concepts of Set Theory © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-2 Chapter 2: The Basic Concepts of Set Theory 2.1 Symbols and Terminology 2.2 Venn Diagrams and Subsets 2.3 Set Operations and Cartesian Products 2.4 Surveys and Cardinal Numbers 2.5Infinite Sets and Their Cardinalities

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-3 Chapter 1 Section 2-3 Set Operations and Cartesian Products

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-4 Set Operations and Cartesian Products Intersection of Sets Union of Sets Difference of Sets Ordered Pairs Cartesian Product of Sets Venn Diagrams De Morgan’s Laws

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-5 Intersection of Sets The intersection of sets A and B, written is the set of elements common to both A and B, or

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-6 Find each intersection. a) b) Solution a) b) Example: Intersection of Sets

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-7 Union of Sets The union of sets A and B, written is the set of elements belonging to either of the sets, or

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-8 Find each union. a) b) Solution a) b) Example: Union of Sets

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-9 Difference of Sets The difference of sets A and B, written A – B, is the set of elements belonging to set A and not to set B, or

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-10 Example: Difference of Sets Let U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}, A = {a, b, c, e, h}, B = {c, e, g}, and C = {a, c, d, g, e}. Find each set. a) b) Solution a) {a, b, h} b)

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-11 Ordered Pairs In the ordered pair (a, b), a is called the first component and b is called the second component. In general Two ordered pairs are equal provided that their first components are equal and their second components are equal.

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-12 Cartesian Product of Sets The Cartesian product of sets A and B, written, is

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-13 Example: Finding Cartesian Products Let A = {a, b}, B = {1, 2, 3} Find each set. a) b) Solution a) {(a, 1), (a, 2), (a, 3), (b, 1), (b, 2), (b, 3)} b) {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3)}

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-14 Cardinal Number of a Cartesian Product If n(A) = a and n(B) = b, then

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-15 Example: Finding Cardinal Numbers of Cartesian Products If n(A) = 12 and n(B) = 7, then find Solution

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-16 Venn Diagrams of Set Operations A B U AB U A U AB U

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-17 Example: Shading Venn Diagrams to Represent Sets Draw a Venn Diagram to represent the set Solution AB U

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-18 Example: Shading Venn Diagrams to Represent Sets Draw a Venn Diagram to represent the set Solution A B C U

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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 2-3-19 De Morgan’s Laws For any sets A and B,

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