Presentation on theme: "Linux Basics. What is an Operating System (OS)? An Operating System (OS) is an interface between hardware and user which is responsible for the management."— Presentation transcript:
What is an Operating System (OS)? An Operating System (OS) is an interface between hardware and user which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of the computer that acts as a host for computing applications run on the machine.
What is an Operating System (OS)? An Operating System is a computer program that manages the resources of a computer. It accepts keyboard or mouse inputs from users and displays the results of the actions and allows the user to run applications, or communicate with other computers via networked connections.
Functions Of Operating System Today most operating systems perform the following important functions: 1. Processor management, that is, assignment of processor to different tasks being performed by the computer system. 2. Memory management, that is, allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system programs as well as user programs and data. 3. Input/output management, that is, co-ordination and assignment of the different output and input device while one or more programs are being executed. 4. File management, that is, the storage of file of various storage devices to another. It also allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the use of text editors or some other files manipulation routines. ……
Common Operating Systems The primary operating systems in use are Windows (Windows 98, XP, Vista, 7, 8), Macintosh OS X, the many versions of Linux and Unix. DOS is still used for some applications, and there are many other special- purpose operating systems (Embedded Linux). Android is a mobile operating system (OS) based on the Linux kernel and currently developed by Google.
What is Linux? The GNU operating system is a complete free software system, upward- compatible with Unix. GNU stands for “GNU's Not Unix”. Richard Stallman made the Initial Announcement of the GNU Project in September 1983. A longer version called the GNU Manifesto was published in September 1985. It has been translated into several other languages.Richard StallmanInitial AnnouncementGNU Manifestoother languages Linux is an operating system that was initially created as a hobby by a young student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus had an interest in Minix, a small UNIX system, and decided to develop a system that exceeded the Minix standards. He began his work in 1991 when he released version 0.02 and worked steadily until 1994 when version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel was released. The kernel, at the heart of all Linux systems, is developed and released under the GNU General Public License and its source code is freely available to everyone. It is this kernel that forms the base around which a Linux operating system is developed. There are now literally hundreds of companies and organizations and an equal number of individuals that have released their own versions of operating systems based on the Linux kernel.operating systemUNIX systemGNU General Public LicenseLinux operating system
Richard Stallman, father of the GNU Project Linus displays Linux running on a notebook pc
Linux Kernel The Kernel is the heart of the Linux operating system, responsible for controlling the computer’s resource and scheduling user jobs so that each one gets its fair share of the resources. Programs interact with the kernel through special functions with well-known names, called system calls.
Different Distributions of Linux Red Hat: http://fedoraproject.orghttp://fedoraproject.org CentOS : http://www.centos.org/http://www.centos.org/ Ubuntu: http://www.ubuntu.comhttp://www.ubuntu.com Mandrake: http://www.linux-mandrake.orghttp://www.linux-mandrake.org Debian: http://www.debian.orghttp://www.debian.org Knoppix: http://www.knoppix.net/http://www.knoppix.net/
CentOS (http://www.centos.org) Cent OS’s main advantage over RedHat enterprise is the fact that it is free.http://www.centos.org
Download ISO image file from: http://mirror.centos.org/centos/5/isos/ or http://mirror.centos.org/centos/6/isos/ Burn: CDBurnerXP or Nero Burning ROM http://mirror.centos.org/centos/5/isos/ http://mirror.centos.org/centos/6/isos/ How to Get CentOS
See Installation Guide (http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html /5.2/Installation_Guide/) CentOS 5 Installation Process (http://www.ee.cuhk.edu.hk/~htlau /CentOS5InstallationProcess.ppt)http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html /5.2/Installation_Guide/http://www.ee.cuhk.edu.hk/~htlau /CentOS5InstallationProcess.ppt Installation
After installation, remember to start the services (SSH, FTP, Web, etc.) you want to run by using System – Administration – Server Settings – Services SSH and FTP: already started Web: httpd Start Services
Menu Software Collection (Firefox, OpenOffice, multimedia software, etc.) Similar to Windows and quite easy to use But Linux is mainly used to act as free (SSH, Web, FTP, Email, etc.) server Environment
Up already after installation Use terminal to try. Other computers can use SSH client or PuTTY to connect to SSH server PuTTY can be downloaded from http://winscp.net/download/putty.exe SSH client can be downloaded from https://www.cuhk.edu.hk/itsc/ssh/index2.html SSH Server
Up already after installation Other computers can use Secure File Transfer Client or WinSCP to connect and then upload or download files WinSCP can be downloaded from http://winscp.net/download/winscp556.zip FTP Server
You may use other computers (Frontpage, Dreamweaver, etc.) to create homepage and then use FTP or USB drive to copy the homepage files to /var/www/html/ Other computers use browsers to connect to http://hostname or http://IPAddress, e.g., http://220.127.116.11 http://hostname Apache Web Server
The Linux Home Page at Linux Online (http://www.linux.org/)http://www.linux.org/ 鳥哥的 Linux 私房菜 (http://linux.vbird.org/)http://linux.vbird.org/ Google (use it to search useful information) Basic UNIX commands (http://mally.stanford.edu/~sr/computing/basic- unix.html)http://mally.stanford.edu/~sr/computing/basic- unix.html Linux Documentation
The most useful documentation (http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/5.2/De ployment_Guide/)http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/5.2/De ployment_Guide/ CentOS Documentation