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Bluetooth Introduction The Bluetooth Technology

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Presentation on theme: "Bluetooth Introduction The Bluetooth Technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bluetooth Introduction The Bluetooth Technology
Why Bluetooth History The Bluetooth Technology The Bluetooth Stack Bluetooth in ad hoc networks

2 Introduction Why Bluetooth? Cable replacement between devices.
Supported by major companies. Open Specification Low power consumption Connection can be initiated without user interaction. Devices can be connected to multiple devices at the same time.

3 History The technology was born in 1994.
The first version was released July 1999. The Bluetooth name comes from the Danish Viking Harald Blåtand.

4 The Bluetooth Technology
The Bluetooth Stack:

5 Radio Bluetooth devices operate on 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical band (ISM band). Unlicensed in most countries. Interferences from: Other radio frequency short-range techniques Wireless local area networks (IEEE ) Random noise generators (microwave ovens) Other Bluetooth units

6 Radio (cont.) Techniques to minimize packet loss: Frequency Hopping
Adaptive power control Short data packets

7 Frequency Hopping Uses FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum)
Divides the ISM-band into 79 1-Mhz channels. Communication between devices switches between available channels.

8 Frequency Hopping (cont.)

9 Power Control Three power classes defined with max output power from 1 mW (Class 1) to 100 mW (Class 3). Devices may be implementet with power control Optimize power consumption Decrease interference Bluetooth provides three types of power classes. These classes provide power and range as follows: Type Power Level Operating Range Class 3 Devices 100mW Up to 100 meters Class 2 Devices 10mW Up to 10 meters Class 1 Devices 1mW meters Each has its usage. Class 1 is a cable replacement for a mouse or keyboard. Class 2 is to connect a laptop to PDA, PDA to PDA, or laptop to laptop. Class 3 can compete with b and could be used for all of the above, or it can provide wireless connectivity for a whole building.

10 Bluetooth Packet Structure

11 Baseband Responsible for channel coding/decoding, timing and managing a Bluetooth link. Master/slave Devices in a connection are either master or slave. Communication is only possible between a master and its slaves. A master and the slaves are named piconets. Scatternet; multiple piconets connected together.

12 Piconets and Scatternet

13 The Link Manager Responsible for establishing, supervising and tear down connections and logical links. Link controller states introduced to carry out these tasks. States: Standby Inquiry / Inquiry Scan Page / Page Scan Connection

14 The Link Manager (cont.)
Inquiry Used to detect all devcies in an unknown environment. Page / Page Scan Describes how connection is established. Have to know the address of the other devices. Is usually achieved through inquiry. Connection Master and slaves are synchronized. Connection is established.

15 Inquiry / Inquiry Scan

16 Page / Page Scan

17 Host Controller Interface (HCI)
Provided to ease the partition of the Bluetooth Stack across two processors. Some systems will implement the baseband and link manager on the Bluetooth device and higher levels on the host processor. The HCI is provided as an interface between these parts.

18 Logical Link Control and Adaption (L2CAP)
Deals with multiplexing of different services segmentation reassembling of packets Quality of Service

19 Profiles Provide interoperability between devices from different manufacturers for specific services and use cases. A profile defines a selection of messages and procedures gives an unambiguous description of communication between two devices.

20 Bluetooth in ad hoc networks
Bluetooth network infrastructure is of dynamic ad-hoc type. It is constantly changing and depending on the movement of the devices.

21 Bluetooth in ad hoc networks (cont.)
Temporary networks. Connect ”on-the-fly”. Small wireless network called ”personal area network” (PAN). Provide voice, data, eliminate cables, bridge networks. Supports PDAs, mobile phones, printers, faxes, microphones.

22 Bluetooth in ad hoc networks (cont.)
The master can support up to 7 devices in its network. Devices use the same frequency, but can be in multiple networks.

23 Security Bluetooth provides security only over the radio link, from each device to all other devices. Three security specifications: Confidentiality Authentication Authorization

24 Bluetooth in the future
Bluetooth was originally intended to be a cable replacement, but, has evolved to become an infrastructure for Personal Area Network (PAN) 2001: 10 million devices produced 2003: 70 million!

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