Presentation on theme: "Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient. It is usually grouped within the B-complex vitamins. found in the lipids that make up cell membranes and."— Presentation transcript:
Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient. It is usually grouped within the B-complex vitamins. found in the lipids that make up cell membranes and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Lipoic acid Lipoic acid is an organosulfur compound. The R-enantiomer is biosynthesized and used as a cofactor. As a cofactor it is covalently bound via an amide bond to a specific lysine residue of lipoyl domains.
Carnitine In animals, the biosynthesis of carnitine occurs primarily in the liver and kidneys from the amino acids lysine and methionine. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is essential to the synthesis of carnitine. During growth or pregnancy, the requirement of carnitine might exceed its natural production
2H + +2e Coenzyme Q Coenzyme Q = Ubiquinone A lipid in inner membrane of mitochondria. Moves freely within membrane. Carries electrons. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ 10) or ubiquinone is essentially a vitamin or vitamin-like substance. –(1) fish; (2) organ meats, including liver, kidney and heart; and (3) the germs of whole grains –It is synthesized in all tissues. –The biosynthesis of CoQ10 from the amino acid tyrosine requires at least eight vitamins and several trace elements. Coenzyme Q10 is the coenzyme for at least three mitochondrial enzymes (complexes I, II and III) as well as enzymes in other parts of the cell. CoQ10 has been studied in its reduced form as a potent antioxidant.
Coenzyme Q - 'promoted' to a Vitamin? A vital 'transport agent' in the use of oxygen to generate energy, especially in the heart muscle. Supplements do aid in many forms of heart disease, gum disease, BUT >> slows Parkinsons/Alzheimers/ aging, relieves allergies, boosts athletic performance and immunity, aids weight loss ?!
Causes of Deficiency Significantly decreased levels of CoQ10 have been noted in a wide variety of diseases in both animal and human studies. CoQ10 deficiency may be caused by 1. Insufficient dietary CoQ10. 2. Impairment in CoQ10 biosynthesis. 3. Excessive utilization of CoQ10 by the body excessive exertion hypermetabolism acute shock states 4.or any combination of the three. 5.Drugs can cause CoQ deficiency HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors used to treat elevated blood cholesterol levels by blocking cholesterol biosynthesis also block CoQ10 biosynthesis. The resulting lowering of blood CoQ10 level is due to the partially shared biosynthetic pathway of CoQ10 and cholesterol.
Non-nutrient compound Found in plant-derived foods and have biological activity in the body. Some categories: Antioxidants (anti-aging/cancer/heart disease?) - catechins (berries, green/black tea), lycopene (tomatoes,watermelon), bioflavanoids (citrus fruit, grapes), coenzyme Q (nuts,oils). Estrogen mimics ( cancer inhibitors?) - indoles (broccoli, cauliflower), isoflavones (legumes), lignans & omega-3- fatty acids (canola, flaxseed), genistein (soy). Phytochemicals
Lycopene = red pigment in tomatoes, red grapefruit, watermelon
Historically it was believed to be part of the Vitamin B complex and was called vitamin B13 It is manufactured in the body via a mitochondrial enzyme, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase or a cytoplasmic enzyme of pyrimidine synthesis pathway It is used as a mineral carrier